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repeat actions with different objects to see what will happenSubstage 6:•using symbols•18-24 months•shows capacity to use symbols •engage in pretend play •show ability to engage in deferred imitation, where behavior seen in another time and place in reproducedPiaget’s term for understand that objects exist independently is called object permanence
Theories of Cognitive DevelopmentIn just two years, infant progresses from reflexive responding to actively exploring the world, understanding objects and using symbols2. The Preoperational StageoSpans from ages 2-7oMarked by the child’s use of symbols to represent objects and eventsoChildren become proficient at using common symbols such as words, gestures, graphs, maps and modelsoPreoperational children typically believe that others see the world both literally and figurativelyoEgocentrism refers to young children’s difficult in seeing the world from another’s viewpoint (limitation)oPreoperational children sometimes credit inanimate objects with life and lifelike properties, a phenomenon known as animism oChildren in the preoperational stage also have the psychological equivalent of tunnel vision: they often concentrate on one aspect of a problem but totally ignore other equally relevant aspectsoCentration is Piaget’s term for this narrowly focused thought that characterizes preoperational youngsters (limitation)3. The Concrete Operational StageoSpans from age 7-11oChildren first use mental operations to solve problems and to reasonoMental operations are strategies and rules that make thinking more systematic and more powerful oOther mental operations apply to categories of objects (mothers + fathers = parents), spatial relations (if point A is near points B and C, then points B and C must be close to each other)oCan also be reversed – undo or reverse the effect of an operation – start with 5 and add 3 you get 8/subtract 3 from 8 and you get 5oLimited to the tangible and real, to the here and now4. The Formal Operational Stage
Theories of Cognitive DevelopmentoAge 11 into adulthoodoChildren and adolescents apply mental operations to abstract entities, they think hypothetically and reason deductively oThinkers understand reality is not the only possibility – envision alternative realities and examine their consequences (i.e. what would happen if men gave birth)oCan solve problems by creating hypothesis and testing them oBetter able to reason logically from premises and draw appropriate conclusions – the ability to draw appropriate conclusions from facts is known as deductive reasoning