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3.Prepare a thin section of stem from your plant and examine it under the microscope to identify the vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) and the structural differences in their cells. Describe how the observed differences in cellular structure reflect differences in function of the two types of vascular tissue.4.If you wanted to transplant a tree, would you choose to move the tree in the winter, when it doesn’t possess any leaves but it’s cold outside, or during the summer, when the tree has leaves and it’s warm and sunny? Explain your answer.■■ProcedureMaterials•Living representative plant species available in your region/season, such as Impatiens(a moisture-loving plant), Coleus, oleander (more drought toler-ant), Phaseolus vulgaris(bean seed-lings), pea plants, varieties of Lycoper-sicon(tomato), peppers, and ferns•Calculator, microscope, microscope slides, clear cellophane tape, clear nail polish, and scissors•Additional supplies that you might need after you choose a method to determine leaf surface area (Step 1 below). Ask your teacher for advice.Record data and any answers to questions in your lab notebooks, as instructed by your teacher. Step■1Form teams of two or three and investigate methods of calculating leaf surface area. (You will need to calculate leaf surface area when you conduct your experiments.) Think about and formulate answers to the following questions as you work through this activity:a.How can you calculate the total leaf surface area expressed in cm2? In mm2?b.How can you estimate the leaf surface area of the entire plant without measuring every leaf? c.What predictions and/or hypotheses can you make about the number of stomata per mm2and the rate of transpiration?d.Is the leaf surface area directly related to the rate of transpiration? e.What predictions can you make about the rate of transpiration in plants with smaller or fewer leaves? f.Because most leaves have two sides, do you think you have to double your calculation to obtain the surface area of one leaf? Why or why not?
Investigation 11 S139BIG IDEA 4: INTERACTIONSg.Water is transpired through stomata, but carbon dioxide also must pass through stomata into a leaf for photosynthesis to occur. There is evidence that the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has not always been the same over the history of life on Earth. Explain how the presence of a higher or lower concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide would impact the evolution of stomata density in plants.h.Based on the data in the following table, is there a relationship between the habitat (in terms of moisture) to which the plants are adapted and the density of stomata in their leaves? What evidence from the data supports your answer?Table■1.■Average■Number■of■Stomata■per■Square■Millimeter■(mm2)■of■Leaf■Surface■AreaPLANTIN■UPPER■EPIDERMISIN■LOWER■EPIDERMISAnacharis00Coleus0141Black Walnut0160Kidney Bean40176Nasturtium0130Sunflower85156Oats2523Corn7088Tomato12130Water Lily4600