Lecture 11 Articles.docx

Jean piaget proposed that childrens thinking

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Jean Piaget proposed that children’s thinking progresses through 4 discrete stages o (1) Sensorimotor stage – birth to 2, children come to represent enduring reality of objects Children’s thinking is largely realized thru perceptions of world & physical interactions w/ it Object permanence task – failure to search for an object if removed from their sight Children less than 9 months don’t understand that objects still exist even when out of sight o (2) Preoperational reasoning stage – 2 to 6 or 7, children represent objects thru drawing & language Children cannot solve logical reasoning problems yet – they can solve simple problems Children focus on a single dimension even for problems requiring multiple dimensions Conservation problem – physical transformation of an object changes perceptually salient dimension buy not quantity that is being asked about Children less than 7 will say there is more water if you pour water into a taller & thinner cup o (3) Concrete operational stage – 6 or 7 to 11 or 12, children can think logically about concrete situations Children do not engage in systematic scientific reasoning yet o (4) Formal operational reasoning stage – 11 or 12 thru life, adolescents gain reasoning powers of adults
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Requires formal education in scientific reasoning – absent in societies w/o this type of education Researchers have found that cognitive development is more continuous than Piaget claims Cognitive development research shows that phonemic awareness is crucial skill in learning to read o Phonemic awareness – awareness of component sounds within words o Kindergartner’s performance on phonemic awareness tasks is strongest predictor of reading achievements Researchers hypothesized that difference in math knowledge btwn child of low- income and affluent backgrounds was due to children in middle- to upper-income families engaging more frequently in numerical activities o Chutes and Ladders – numerical board game that seems to be useful for building numerical knowledge o Numerical magnitudes – size of numbers, knowledge of this is related to math achievement test scores The Developing Parent Parenthood is often considered a normative developmental task of adulthood o People have children for many reasons – emotional, economic and utilitarian, social-normative reasons Children are less likely to be living w/ both parents in US – woman in US are also have fewer children o Parenting outside of marriage has increased dramatically among most people o College-educated women are substantially more likely to be married at the birth of a child Children’s growth and development forces parents to change their roles – they develop new skills & abilities Galinsky identified 6 stages of parenthood that focuses on different tasks and goals o (1) Image-Making Stage – think what it means to be a parent & plan for changes to accommodate child Occurs during pregnancy and include planning for the child Parents may evaluate their relationships w/ their own parents and use that as a model o (2) Nurturing Stage – develop attachment relationship w/ child and adapt to new baby Occurs during birth of the baby and during infancy
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