Punj 1983 an alternative conceptualization of

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(GIRISH N. PUNJ, 1983). An alternative conceptualization of consumer behavior is developed to provide better information on product success and failure. In this approach, the concepts of awareness set and evoked set are expanded to include inert set and inept set. The approach supplies relevant clues for present product performance and future marketing strategies. (CHEM L. NARAYANA, 1975). The construct of consumer affinity, which captures country-specific favorable feelings toward particular foreign countries, was 4
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recently introduced in the international marketing literature. In this study, the authors conceptually advance the consumer affinity construct and develop a measurement instrument for capturing affinity feelings. They also link consumer affinity, country image, and consumer ethnocentrism to key consumer behavior variables—namely, perceived risk and willingness to buy products from, invest in, and visit the affinity country. The findings indicate that consumer affinity is more powerful than consumers' ethnocentric tendencies in explaining both perceived risk and willingness to buy. The results also show that consumer affinity is more influential than cognitive evaluations of a country for the majority of the behavioral outcomes considered in the study (perceived risk, visit intentions, and investment intentions). Thus, internationally active companies can benefit from leveraging consumer affinity feelings in addition to positive country images. Overall, the study emphasizes the important role of positive affect in shaping consumer behavior, thus complementing prior research that focuses exclusively on the behavioral implications of negative affect (most notably consumer animosity). (EVA M. OBERECKER, 2011). This study assesses consumer perceptions of advertising messages for two pro environmental products by examining the effectiveness of environmental versus personal benefit appeals and .99 versus .00 price endings. The authors borrow from Prospect Theory and Mental Accounting Theory to explain consumers' perceptions of psychological pricing and product attributes. In addition, the moderating role of environmental skepticism is assessed as it relates to the effectiveness of environmentally friendly advertisements. Results indicate that consumers feel that some products advertised with environmental appeals are more costly, but are not perceived as lower quality as compared with products advertised with personal benefits. Findings also indicate a price ending × appeal interaction for two different products, but the effects vary between the products. Finally, environmental skepticism is found to moderate perceptions of the message appeal. Implications are provided. ( MARLA B. ROYNE, 2012). This theoretical paper develops a conceptual framework that explains how companies can influence consumer behavior in terms of both social and business benefits through their corporate social marketing (CSM) initiatives. Drawing from the source credibility literature, the article asserts that the effectiveness
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