imaginary audience (belief that everyone is watching, behavior is the focus of other’s concern), personal fable (experiences are unique, nothing bad can happen to them because they are special “you don’t understand!”) 9/1/17 thinking in more dimensions - More sophisticated understanding of probability, more complicated self-conceptions and relationships, understand sarcasm Adolescent relativism - Ability to see things as relative rather than absolute - More likely to question others’ assertions and less likely to accept facts as truth difficulties between parents and teens - Piaget: cognitive development= 4 stages (sensorimotor birth-2yrs, preoperational, concrete, formal). Each stage characterized by a particular type of thought, adolescent thinking is thought to be qualitatively different from the type of thinking employed by children - Abstract thinking: chief difference between adolescent and child-like thinking. Not all adolescents or adults have full developed formal-operational thinking - Competence and performance: what can be done vs what is actually done in daily life. Have knowledge but may not change behavior Information-processing view - Why are adolescent’s better problem solvers than children? - Five areas of improvement: selective attention and divided attention, working and long- term memory/ autobiographical memories, processing speed (myelin sheath development), organization, metacognition The Adolescent Brain - Brain maturation in adolescence may be linked to behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development during this period
Psychology of Adolescence Notes - Male and female differences very small and unlikely to explain differences in behavior or thinking. Male brains 10% larger and prenatal hormones may explain some differences between male and female brains. Study done on autopsies, brain size matches the gender a person thought they were rather than their assigned gender at birth. - Gray matter: soon after birth unused synapses start to be eliminated (synaptic pruning), makes brain more efficient - White matter: provides support and protection for neurons and compose myelin that surrounds axons and make processing more efficient/faster. Myelination is the process through which brain circuits are insulated with myelin - Age of opportunity: plasticity is the capacity of the brain to change in response to experience. Developmental plasticity= greater capacity to shape brain earlier in childhood vs adult plasticity= minor changes in brain circuits as a result of experiences during adulthood after brain has matured 9/18/17 Changes in the limbic system - Dopamine (experience in reward) and serotonin (experience different moods) changes in brain make adolescents more emotional, responsive to stress, engage in reward-seeking and sensation-seeking behavior (more risk-taking behavior), more vulnerable to substance abuse, depression, and other mental health problems - Higher risk for impulse-control disorders, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia (between age 10 and 20) -
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- Winter '15
- Psychology, Adolescence Notes, Psychology of Adolescence Notes