(what key something is in)Time Signatures: common metrical patternso2/4 2 beats per measure, quarter note gets one beat DUPLEo3/4 3 beats per measure, quarter note gets one beat TRIPLEo4/4 4 beats per measure, quarter note gets one beat QUADRUPLEo6/8 6 beats per measure, eighth note gets one beatConducting PatternsoFirst beat is always down2/4 slight curvature to basic up down motion3/4 to outside of body on beat two4/4 second beat to inside of bodySimple vs. Compound MeteroSimple: beats most naturally subdivided in equal parts (2, 4, etc.) (2/4, 4/4, 2/2)oCompound Meter: beats most naturally sub-divided in 3 parts (triplets) (6/8, 9/8, 12/8)Syncopation: the use of unexpected (unpredictable or intermittent) accents, juxtaposed against a “regular” rhythmPolyrhythm: laying of more than one rhythm at a time, not all rhythms are beatsPolymeter: alternation between two different meters (ex. 3/4, 4/4)Tempo: speed of the beat, metronome markings indicate the speed at which a piece should beperformed
MUSI 3610Harmony: vertical aspect of music, background of a painting (melody is foreground, copyrightable)oTwo or more tones sounded simultaneouslyoChords are built on thirds (our system is tertiary), three notes sounded together are a triadoWestern music largely employs two contexts built upon scales: major and minoroHarmony of a work is the progression of various chords (not copyrightable)oCadences:a progression of different chords,becomes popular and common in usage,end of melodic phraseChords: notes chosen from scales (stepwise motion of tones selected from chromatic scale) that are sounded together (at the same time)oTriads: three tones selected from alternate notes of a scale from an actual chordTriads chosen by “stacking” the (1st, 3rd, & 5th), (2nd, 4th, & 6th), (3, 5, and 7th) notes etc. of a selected scaleScales: a series of tones arranged mostly stepwise, can be major or minor (“diatonic scales”)oChromatic Scale: all 12 tones in music, all a half-step apartoMajor Scales: whole whole half whole whole whole halfoMinor Scale: whole half whole whole half whole wholeoWhole Tone Scale: divides the octave into six consecutive whole stepsoPentatonic Scales: five note scale (Chinese, American folk, and African)oModal Scales: known as Greek or Church ModesoBlues Scales: jazz and rock musicoDiatonic: of the tonic i.e. all pitches used are of the home key (none chosen from outside the specific major or minor scale), seven different harmoniesEach tone has a nameTonic: 1stSubdominant: 4thDominant: 5thoHarmonic ContextConsonance and Dissonance: A comparative measure of instability or numberof half step relationshipsConsonance: agreement, creates resolutionDissonance: disagreement, creates tensionMajor and Minor: bright and somber related to the 3rddegree of the scale (flatted for minor)Major (HAPPY) Minor (SAD)Musical TextureoMonophony: ONE tone (pitch) at a timeoHeterophony
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- Spring '08
- Music, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart