In a format shown by the following examples where i

This preview shows page 6 - 8 out of 18 pages.

in a format shown by the following examples: •Where I work: ** Meeting times are Meeting times are kept very punctually 1 2 3 4 S only kept a^noximately * Quantity prevails Quality prevails over quality 12 3 4 5 over quantity' Which .statement was put on the left side and which on the right was deter- mined at random, to avoid acquiescence bias. The questionnaires were answered by a strictly random sample from each of the 20 organizational units, consisting of (about) 20 nnanagers, 20 non- managerial professionals, and 20 non-professional employees per unit. The number 20 thus played an important role in the design of the study; it is the minimum sample size that allows statistical conclusions of sufficient reliability. A total of 1,295 respondents provided answers to 131 questions each. The analysis, however, was based on nuan scores (weighteid across the three occupational groups) for the 20 organizational units, not on the 1,295 individual scores. The values questions that had differentiated so much across countries, showed much smaller score differences across organizational units. What did differentiate the strongest across units were the practices questions. This led to the conclusion that cultural differences between matched samples of respondents from different countries are primarily a matter of values, while cultural differences between matched samples of respondents from differ- ent organizations within the same country are primarily a matter of prac- tices, as perceived by the respondents. Practices are reflections of symbols, heroes and rituals that are specific to one culture as opposed to others; they are the visible part of cultures, while values represent the invisible part. Practices are less basic than values, and are amenable to planned change; values do change, but according to their own logic, not according to anyone's plans. Our findings about the central role of practices in organizational culture contra.st with the common belief in the management literature (e.g. Peters
Image of page 6

Subscribe to view the full document.

Attitudes and Cuiture 483 and Watennan 1982) that shared values are the core of an organization's culture. The disagreement can be understood from the fact that the man- agement literature nearly always draws its infonnation about company values from managers, even top managers. We surveyed samples of the total populations, as we believe that an organization's culture is located in the mental programmes of all members of the organization. There is little doubt that practices arc designed according to the values of the founders and, in later phases, of significant top managers of the organization in question, but this does not mean that all members of the organization sharc these values. A work organization is not a total institution. Members have to follow the practices if they want to rcmain members, but they do not have to confess to the values. Leaders' values become followers' practices.
Image of page 7
Image of page 8
You've reached the end of this preview.
  • Spring '12
  • dr.long
  • Geeit Hofstede

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern