2. The approach is rooted in the tradition of subject matter. 3. Educators have been trained in cognitive approaches and better unders- tand them in many African countries and globally. Note: Learning in school largely involves cognitive processes. Schools the- refore tend to emphasize the cognitive domain of learning at the expense of other aspects of learning, i.e. affective and psychomotor. Schools should therefore be more humane places where students can fulfill their human potential. Hence, let us now examine Humanistic psychology.
African Virtual University ¶µ Humanistic Psychology (Humanism) Humanistic psychology is concerned about the human beings above all else in the universe; it centers on helping people in various ways. This theory has given rise to a focus on: • Affective education i.e. education about feelings, attitudes, and self-esteem • Classification of values for curriculum • Holistic approach to education • Top priorities being choice (for students) and responsibility Thus, the learner should have an awareness of self. That is, the concept we hold of ourselves i.e. who we are, determines what we do; and the extent to which we learn. In other words, cognitive performance will be influenced by self-concept. Some of the scholars associated with this theory include: Maslow (1908 – 1970) and Carl Rogers. In summary, each of the psychological theories is useful to curriculum planners as they seek alternative approaches for preparing most useful curricula for lear- ners. Activity 1 . Which of the three psychological theories would you find most useful in desi- gningSecondary School Curriculum in your country and why (Write an essay of 200 – 300 words) 2. Visit a primary school class and observe pupils in a lower primary class (say class 2) and another primary class (say class 7) and identify differences with regard to:- a) The methodology adopted by the teachers and learning materials and relate them to the developmental levels of the children on average per class. b) Talk to teachers in those classes and find out how their methods relate to levels of development for the average child in those classes. Write a report of about 200 words. Summary In this unit, we have examined foundations of curriculum; that is, the values, tra- ditions, factors and forces which influence curriculum making. Four foundations were explored; i.e. Historical, philosophical, sociological and psychological. We established that historical foundations were those factors and issues from the past that have an influence on the curriculum at present. Examples of various forms of education from the past that have influenced were given including ancient edu- cation such as Greek and Roman education. Other examples were Renaissance, reformation and progressivism.
African Virtual University ¶¶ Philosophical foundations were presented; idealism, realism, pragmatism and existentialism. Educational philosophies discussed included perennialism, essen- tialism, progressivism and reconstructionism. Influence of each philosophy on curriculum was highlighted. For example, a curriculum developed by pragmatists
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- Spring '16
- CURRICULUM THEORY, African Virtual University