Divided into groups of both conclusions and wrote explanations. Once info was discredited, people still held their self-generated explanations (their belief) The more we examine our theories and explain how they might be true, the more closed we become to info that challenges our belief Prisoners to our own thought patterns - Belief perseverance : Persistence of your initial conceptions, as when the basis for your belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives o The tendency to maintain beliefs even after they have been discredited - Remedy for belief perseverance: explain the opposite o After imagining opposite finding, people less biased in evaluations of evidence for and against their views o Explaining any alternative outcome ponder various possibilities Constructing memories - We construct memories at the time of withdrawal – reconstruct our distant past by using our current feelings and expectations to combine fragments of information - Unconsciously revise our memories to suit our current knowledge o Often construct false memories (Ex: Asked to imagine childhood memory of falling, ¼ will recall fictitious event) - Misinformation effect: incorporating “misinformation” into one’s memory of the event, after witnessing an event and then receiving misleading information about it
o People incorporate misinformation into their memories; recall a yield sign as a stop sign, cereal as eggs, a moustache as a shaved man; may even produce false memories of sexual abuse o Also affects physical events; if told someone liked you, will recall as happy, comfortable; if told they didn’t, will recall as uncomfortable, nervous Reconstructing past attitudes - Experiment: Survey asking students about student control over university system; a week later, asked to write an essay opposing student control. When asked to recall how they answered the question before, most reported remembering holding the new opinion and denied that experiment had affected them - The construction of positive memories brightens our recollections o Experiment: More people exhibit “rosy retrospection” – recall pleasant events more favourably than they experienced them Ex: Enjoying bike trip, vacation Minimize unpleasant/boring aspects and romanticize the positive - We also revise our recollections of other people as our relationships with them change o Ex: Rate romantic partner, and again 2 months later. Those who broke up were more likely to recall partner being selfish/bad tempered Reconstructing past behaviour - Ex: Students taught importance of tooth brushing; recalled brushing teeth more often afterwards than before; people report smoking few cigarettes than were actually sold - Totalitarian egos: Revise the past to suit our present views o Why we under-report bad behaviour and over-report good behaviour How do we judge our social worlds? - Intuitive judgments o Listening to our premonitions o Unconscious controls much of our behaviour Ex: Why we react to hit the brake at a red light before consciously deciding to do so Conscious mind needed for action initiation - Controlled processing:
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