Situational leadership model- Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model: a model that proposes that different types of appropriate leadership are contingent on some other variable, in this case, followers’ readiness to learn new tasks The role of situational factors (pp. 225-28). Fiedler’s leadership contingency theory- According to the theory, a favorable situation for the leader exists when three conditions are present: when relations with subordinates are good, when the task is highly structured, and when the leader has considerable position power. House’s path-goal theory It assumes that the leader’s role is to influence subordinates’ estimated probabilities for being able to convert their efforts into performance that leads to desired rewards.
Chapter 9 What is motivation (p. 241 + lectures) Motivation- a set of forces that energize, direct, and sustain behavior Sources of motivation (i.e., push vs. pull) (p. 241-42). 1. The characteristics of the individual (internal/push) 2. The characteristics of the job or task (internal/external, push/pull) 3. The characteristics of the work situation (external/pull) Difference between process and content theories of motivation (p. 242). Content theories- motivation theories that focus on what needs a person is trying to satisfy and on what features of the work environment seem to satisfy those needs Process theories- How different variables can combine to influence the amount of effort put forth by employees Maslow’s need hierarchy (pyramid) theory and differences with Alderfer’s ERG theory (p. 242-44). Maslow’s need hierarchy theory- a theory that states that people will first attempt to fulfill basic needs, such as physiological and safety needs, before making efforts to satisfy higher-order needs, such as social and esteem needs McClelland’s Acquired Needs theory (pp. 245-46). Acquired needs theory- a motivation theory that focuses on learned needs—such as those for achievement, power, and affiliation—that become enduring tendencies Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory, esp. distinction between motivators and hygiene factors (pp. 246-47). Two-factor theory- a motivation theory that focuses on the presumed different effects of intrinsic job factors (motivation) and extrinsic situational factors (hygiene factors)
Hackman & Oldman’s Job Characteristics Model, esp. 5 core job characteristics (pp. 247-48). Skill variety -The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work, involving the use of a number of different skills and talents of the person. Task identity -The degree to which a job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. Task significance -The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people, whether those people are in the immediate organization or in the world at large.
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