The definition of anxiety ranges from an amalgam of overt behavioral characteristics that can be studied scientifically to introspective feelings that are epistemologically inaccessible (Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2001). Broadly speaking, anxiety is the subjective feeling of tension, apprehension,
nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the automatic nervous system (Spielberger, 1983). Traditionally, the nature of anxiety has been differentiated into trait anxiety, situational anxiety, and state anxiety. Though no clear delineation between these three categories can be claimed, the differences can roughly be identified on a continuum from stability to transience, with trait anxiety related to a generally stable predisposition to be nervous in a wide range of situations on one end, and a moment-to-moment experience of transient emotional state on the other. Situational anxiety falls in the middle of the continuum, representing the probability of becoming anxious in a particular type of situation. The recent history of studies on anxiety in the language learning area is remarkably influenced by two seminal papers. First, Scovel (1978) identified that early perspectives of anxiety generated very inconsistent results concerning the relationship between anxiety and second language achievement. Scovel attributed the conflicting and mixed results to different anxiety measures and different conceptualizations of anxiety. He claimed that ambiguous experimental results can be resolved if the distinction between facilitating and debilitating anxiety is drawn. Facilitating anxiety occurs when the difficulty level of the task triggers the proper
amount of anxiety. However, although a certain level of anxiety may be beneficial, too much anxiety can lead to a debilitating effect, which may lead to avoidance of work or inefficient work performance. The complexity of anxiety is also reflected in the means of its measurement. There are three major ways of measuring anxiety in research, including behavioural observation or rating; physiological assessment such as heart rates or blood pressure tests; and participants’ self-reports, in which internal feelings and reactions are measured (Casado & Dereshiwsky, 2001; Daly, 1991). Participants’ self-reports are utilized most often in examining the anxiety phenomenon in educational studies. Summarizing the above discussions, it is recognized that language anxiety, a type of situational specific psychological phenomenon bearing its own characteristics from language learning contexts, is a relatively distinctive form of anxiety. Language anxiety is also intricately intertwined with other individual differences such as personality traits, emotion, and motivation.
Nicole Ibasco Albino 09304651627 203 E.Rodriguez Sr. Avenue Q.C [email protected] Objectives I wish to embark upon a career that gives me opportunities to learn and grow in an organization. I believe nothing is impossible for a person who has defined goals and objectives to achieve those goals.
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