("The system of alleged discrimination and the class it de>nes have none of the traditional indicia of suspectness"); id . , at 33-35, 93 S.Ct . , at 1296-1298 (courts must look to the Constitution, not the "importance" of the asserted right, when deciding whether an asserted right is "fundamental"). These laws are therefore entitled to a "strong presumption of validity." Heller v . Doe, 509 U.S. 312, 319, 113 S.Ct . 2637, 2642, 125 L . Ed . 2d 257 (1993) . 162 (Emphasis and italics supplied) Neither does the main opinion identify what fundamental right the challenged proviso of the New Central Bank Act infringes upon. Instead the ponencia cites the following Constitutional provisions: PREAMBLE: We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. ARTICLE II:Declaration of Principles and State Policies SECTION 9.The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social service, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all. SECTION 10.The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development. SECTION 11.The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. SECTION 18.The State aErms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare. ARTICLE III:Bill of Rights SECTION 1.No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. ARTICLE IX:Constitutional Commissions B.The Civil Service Commission SECTION 5.The Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government oEcials, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for their positions. ARTICLE XII:National Economy and Patrimony SECTION 1.The goals of the national economy are a more equitable distribution of opportunities, income, and wealth; a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the bene>t of the people; and an expanding productivity as the key raising the quality of life for all, especially the underprivileged.
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