chapter 7 (Management Robbins 12th Edition)

Role demands relate to pressures placed on an

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Role demands relate to pressures placed on an employee as a function of the particular role he plays in the organization. Role conflicts create expectations that may be hard to reconcile or satisfy. Role overload is experienced when the employee is expected to do more than time permits. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood and the employee is not sure what he has to do. Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especially among employees with a high social need. Organization structure can increase stress. Excessive rules and an employee's lack of opportunity to participate in decisions that affect him or her are examples of structural variables that might be potential sources of stress. Organizational leadership represents the supervisory style of the organization's managers. Some managers create a culture characterized by tension, fear, and anxiety. They establish unrealistic pressures to perform in the short run, impose excessively tight controls, and routinely fire employees who do not measure up. This style of leadership filters down through the organization and affects all employees. Page Ref: 198-199 Learning Outcome: Describe the change process and strategies for making changes in an organization AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills; Communication Abilities Ch. Objective: 4 Difficulty: Easy Classification: Conceptual 40
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106) List a few cultural characteristics that an innovative organization possesses. Answer: An innovative organization has the following cultural characteristics: a. Accept ambiguity - Too much emphasis on objectivity and specificity constrains creativity. b. Tolerate the impractical - Individuals who offer impractical, even foolish, answers to what-if questions are not stifled. What at first seems impractical might lead to innovative solutions. c. Keep external controls minimal - Rules, regulations, policies, and similar organizational controls are kept to a minimum. d. Tolerate risk - Employees are encouraged to experiment without fear of consequences should they fail. Mistakes are treated as learning opportunities. Employees do not fear to put forth new ideas. e. Tolerate conflict - Diversity of opinions is encouraged. Harmony and agreement between individuals or units are not assumed to be evidence of high performance. f. Focus on ends rather than means - Goals are made clear, and individuals are encouraged to consider alternative routes toward meeting the goals. Focusing on ends suggests that several right answers might be possible for any given problem. g. Use an open-system focus - Managers closely monitor the environment and respond to changes as they occur. h. Provide positive feedback - Managers provide positive feedback, encouragement, and support so employees feel that their creative ideas receive attention. i. Exhibit empowering leadership - A leader of an innovative organization lets his subordinates know that the work they do is significant. He provides organizational members the opportunity to participate in decision making. He shows them that he is confident that they can achieve high performance levels and outcomes. This has a positive influence on creativity. Page Ref: 204-205 Learning Outcome: Explain the influences of organizational culture; Describe the innovation process and identify strategies for stimulating creativity and innovation AACSB: Reflective Thinking Skills; Communication Abilities Ch. Objective: 5 Difficulty: Moderate Classification: Conceptual 41
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