Of the continuity occurs at the level of the pelvis

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of the continuity occurs at the level of thepelvis of amniotes especially ofbirds and mammalsIntervertebrals and multifidous spinae continue asmedialand longissimus continue aslateral extensorsLonghypaxial musclearise from the medial surfaceand caudal border of the wing of the ilium, fromtransverse processes of the last lumbar vertebraeorfrom the sacrumpass into the tail and bend the taillaterad or downwardMuscles of the Tail
Develop from the upper part of the postoticsomites and several of the trunk somitesLie above the gill regionElevate the craniumwhen mouth is open(some fishes and amphibians)Extension of epaxial muscles of the trunkEpibranchial Muscles
Trunk somites that migrated to the floor of the pharynxLie below the gill regionOpen jaw and expand pharynxduring feedingSharksPrehyoid - coracomandibularis (extend mandibletoward pectoral girdle)Posthyoid - rectus cervicis, coracohyoideus andcoracoarcuals; extend to pectoral girdleHypobranchial Muscles
Cranial extensions of the hypaxial musculature of the tongueExtend forward from the coracoid region of the pectoral girdlevia coracoarcuales in fishesCoracomandiburalis- inserts on the Meckels cartilageCoracohyoideus- insert on the basihyalsCoracobranchialis- insert on theventralmost segments of thegill cartilagesHypobranchial and Tongue Muscles
Assist the branchiomeric muscles inrespirationandfeeding movementsbyexpanding the pharynx and gill pouches,moving parts of the hyoid skeletondepressing the lower jaw in fishes and in anuransand urodeles (depending on the species)Rectus cervicisof urodeles isa hypobranchial muscleHypobranchial and Tongue Muscles
Stabilize the hyoid apparatus and larynx in tetrapodsanddraw these cephalad or caudad: sternohyoid,sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, omohyoid and geniohyoidTongue of amniotes is a mucosal sac anchored to the hyoidskeleton and stuffed with hypobranchial musclesTheextrinsictongue muscles are hyoglossus, styloglossusand genioglossusThe lingualis is anintrinsicmuscle which develops inmammals and some reptilesHypobranchial and Tongue Muscles
Appendicular Muscles
Those that insert on the girdles, fins or limbsMost fishes useaxial muscle for locomotionassuch, the appendicular muscles are:UncomplicatedExhibit little varietyHave little massPerform a restricted functionTetrapods have become increasingly numerousand complex as a consequence ofadaptations for life on landAppendicular Muscles
Appendicular muscles areabsentin agnathansAppendicular muscles in jawed fishes haveevolved with fins and is divided into a dorsal andventral group:Dorsal mass of extensors(or abductors orlevators) moving the fins upward or forwardVentral mass of flexor(or adductors ordepressors) moving the fins downward orbackwardFishes
Far more complex than those of fishes becauseof the joints in tetrapod limbsDivided into two groups depending on theiranatomic origins:

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Term
Summer
Professor
anatomyprofs
Tags
involuntary muscles, tongue muscles, Transverse muscles

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