4.The political history of the People’s Republic from 1949 to 1989 was shaped in large part by tensions between competing visions of how China should be transformed into a modern and socialist country. Describe those two lines, the individuals associated with them, and how they influenced the course of policy between 1949 and 1989. ○ Two Lines ■ “Mao Zedong Thought” ● More rapid implement of social equality ● Ideology can overcome economic shortage ● Human will rather than materials serve the base in the transition period ■ Pragmatists (Liu Shaoqi/ Deng Xiaoping) ● Modernization of economic is important to political transformation ● Orthodox Marxism: only when economy reaches its climax, China is ready for political transformation ● Stress on technological skill ○ Three Stage Development/ First Five Years ■ Three Stage Development ● Mutual aid teams (traditional practices of peasant cooperation in sharing labor and farm animals tools were formalized) ● Lower-level agricultural producers’ cooperatives (APC) ● No private ownership ■ First Five Years (successful) ● Everything is planned ● Emphasize on heavy industry/ all industry is nationalized ● Call for collectivism (However, there is a concern with gradual approach: a growing economic disparity. ) ○ Two Lines’ influence on policy 1.1949-1957 ■ Mao
● (to address this potential problem) Mao had a speech in provincial secretary (break parity discipline) ● Call for rapid transformation ○ Formation of lower agricultural collab ● Results: ○ Increasing the number of collab ■ 1955 mid 15% end 63% 1956 mid 90% ■ Move to higher stage of collectivization/ 1957: call for full collectivism ■ Deng and Liu ● Call for gradually economies approach (Liu/ Deng) 2.The Great Leap Forward era ■ The Great Leap Forward (Mao) ● Establishment of commune ● back-yard steel ○ Decentralize steel production ● Winds of exaggeration ● Fail ■ Lushan Plenum (conflict) ● Mao: stepback to a more realistic level ● Peng Dehuai: saw problems on the ground/ Most leaders side with Peng in the meeting/ dismissing Peng ● Mao ‘s defensive response: attitude changed to one of full steam ahead and lead a new Great Leap which failed spectacularly ■ Liu/Deng Line ● The great leap forward fester the Liu/Deng Line ● rewards/ bonuses and higher wages when they work harder than others ● Allow people to sell food on local market ● Allow people to have own land 3.Socialist Education Campaign 1962 ■ Mao: Reintroduce class struggle into communities once again ● Class label/ Four bad types: ○ Landlords, rich peasants, counterrevolutionaries, bad elements ■ Liu/ Deng
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- Fall '15
- Mao Zedong, People's Republic of China, Deng Xiaoping, Communist Party of China, Cultural Revolution