What are the 2 main divisions of the nervous system? Chapter 5 Law of Effect Thorndike, responses closely followed by satisfaction will most likely be repeated while responses followed by dissatisfaction will most likely not be repeated Classical conditioning A conditioned stimulus becomes associated with an unrelated unconditioned stimulus in order to produce a behavioral response known as a conditioned response Pavlov Russian psychologist (studies the workings of the body) who discovered classical conditioning through his work on digestion in dogs Operant conditioning Learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses Reinforcement Any event or stimulus, that when followed by a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again Learning
Relatively permanent, a change in behavior, attitude, or ability, and brought about by experience or practice Observational learning Learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior Punishment Any event or object that when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again Learned helplessness Tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past Ratio schedule of reinforcement The number of responses between reinforcements Interval schedule of reinforcement The (amount of) time between reinforcements Latent learning Knowledge that only becomes clear when a person has an incentive to display it (Tolman’s Maze Theory: taught 3 groups of rats the same maze one at a time with different reward techniques for each group) Chapter 6 Memory An active system that senses, organizes, alters, stores, and retrieves information What are the three parts of the information-processing model of memory? Encoding, storage, and retrieval Short-term memory Information is stored for about 30 seconds without “rehearsal” Long-term memory Unlimited capacity memory store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time Working memory Cognitive system with limited capacity to temporarily hold information for whenever it is to be processed Declarative (explicit) memory Facts and events that can be easily recalled Episodic memory A person’s unique memory of a specific event (different from everyone else’s) Semantic memory Factual information Recognition
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- Spring '17
- John Jackson