We draw attention to India s attempt totransform the coal technology used in

We draw attention to india s attempt totransform the

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s future emissions. We draw attention to India s attempt to transform the coal technology used in coal-based thermal power plants. We have tried to adopt a holistic approach to quantify the past (2010), present (2015) and future (2025) emission trends for important GHGs like CO 2 and other critical air pollutants from rapidly penetrating low-emission advanced coal technology. Our estimation shows that CO 2 emissions will increase from 1065 Tg yr −1 (2015) to 2634 Tg yr −1 (2025), which is approximately 147% of the current value. This rapid increase is largely attributed to rising energy demand due to industrial development, followed by demand from the domestic and agricultural sectors. The present trend of CO 2 emissions is sure to propel India to become world s second largest emitter of GHGs in 2025, dislodging the United States. We have also estimated the emission of other pollutants like NO x , SO 2 , black carbon, organic carbon, particulate matter (PM 2 . 5 , PM 10 ), volatile organic compounds and CO. Our findings seem to suggest that India will able to cut CO 2 emission from the traditionally dominant thermal power sector by at least 19% in 2025. Present attempts at emission reduction, along with the government s massive initiatives towards building renewable energy infrastructure, could be well aligned to India s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution submission to COP21 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. With such a rapid expansion of energy production it can be assumed that cost-effective and uninterrupted power (i.e. 24/7) can be provided to all citizens of the country well before 2025. Introduction Across the globe, few issues are more contentious than climate and energy. Access to energy is one of the basic needs for human beings and lays the foundation for a nation s economy. Adequate and uninterrupted power is an essential requirement at the forefront of most of the challenges that India has been facing in the last couple of decades. Fossil fuel is used to pro- duce the majority of energy in India and demand is © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd
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Environ. Res. Lett. 12 (2017) 105006 steadily growing. It is interesting that India accounts for just 2.4% of the world s geographical area but supports nearly 17.5% of the world s population. India is the third largest emitter of CO 2 with a global share of just 3%. Two-thirds of India s CO 2 emissions come from coal-based power plants (coal is cost-effective and abundant and easily available in India) and coal-fired power plants generate nearly 41% of the world s elec- tricity (IEA 2008 ). India s energy mix is dominated by coal, with coal plants generating around 65%– 68% of India s electricity (IBEF 2014 ). Further it may be stated that coal will remain the linchpin of the Indian power sector in the future. Hence, attention in recent times has been given to the adverse impact of coal-based power generation on climate (Francey et al 2013 , IPCC 2007 , IEA 2010a , Ebinger 2016 , Rai et al 2013 ). Direct GHGs like CO 2 are impor- tant anthropogenic forcing agents (Myhre et al 2013 ); contributions from indirect GHGs are also relevant. Numerous studies have reported a linear
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