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Katznelson states that these individuals are remedied because of their race, they are remedied because at an earlier instance they were treated unfairly because of their race. For example when national policies deliberately excluded domestic and agricultural workers, the injustice was not just limited to Blacks so the solutions shouldn’t be limited either. Liberals see the existing policy of Affirmative Action as insufficient. Due to globalization becoming more influential many are questioning the necessity and the efficiency of Affirmative Action as a remedy for the black disadvantage. Katznelson states, “As part of the quest for civil rights in the Kennedy years, Affirmative Action did not yet connote compensatory treatment or special preferences. Rather, it simply implied positive deeds to combat racial discrimination.” (145)However, many view Affirmative Action as an exhausting task that encroaches on principles of merit of equal opportunity and has not achieved its original goals as affirmed by President Johnson in 1965. Katznelson's analysis of the historical context of Affirmative Action serves as a purpose to directly influence the Affirmative Action debate in America. Katznelson reminds us of the true racial bias present in American society and to truly understand this we must look at the history. “As a consequence, at the very moment when a wide array of public policies was providing most white Americans with valuable tools to advance their social welfare -- insure their old age, get good jobs, acquire economic security, build assets, and gain middle-class status -- most black Americans were left behind or left out.” (23) Affirmative Action is seen by many as an effort to amend the ill effects of the many years of African-American slavery and oppression. Due to the policies of the 1960s a black middle class has flourished and evolved rapidly. Yet still many of African-American are still subjected to poverty in a nation divided over the need for Affirmative Action policies. Johnson privately advised that the Eisenhower administration's non-discrimination clause for governmental contracts should "be revised to impose not merelythe
Darby negative obligation of avoiding discrimination but the affirmative dutyto employ applicants. (145) These Affirmative Action programs are under review and condemned for being discriminative against the white majority. Katznelson advocates for the necessity of Affirmative Action and believes that our country needs to protect the social equality and social justice advances that resulted from the Affirmative Action policies of the 1960s. Works CitedIra Katznelson. When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America. W.W. Norton & Company. New York, 2005.