The central paradigm of biochemistry holds that

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The central paradigm of biochemistry holds that information flows from DNA to RNA to protein. The process of making protein from the mRNA is called translation . Translation is carried out by the ribosome, which binds to the mRNA and binds tRNA, which recognizes the codons on the mRNA and brings the appropriate amino acid with it. The ribosome forms the peptide bond between the new amino acid and the growing peptide chain. It stabilizes the tRNA­amino acid complex. It is the active site of this ribozyme. It attaches to the amino acid. It base pairs with the codon of mRNA. Only about 40 of the recognized 61 codons are present in mRNA. An anticodon forms hydrogen bonds with the codon; it must match the first two bases of the codon, but is less specific with respect to the third base. There are tRNAs that can bind one of two related amino acids. Only 20 of the codons are activeone for each amino acid.
11/20/13 Chapter 17 assignment - Transcription, RNA processing, and Translation session.masteringbiology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2196984 35/68 Part A Complete the following vocabulary exercise related to the process of translation of mRNA to protein by the ribosome. Match the words in the left­hand column with the appropriate blank in the sentences in the right­hand column. Hint 1. Put the translation events in order These three events happen every time mRNA is translated into a protein. Put these events in order. Rank from first to last. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER: Hint 2. Identify the function of tRNA What is the the function of tRNA? ANSWER: Hint 3. Identify the function of aminoacyl­tRNA synthetase What is the function of aminoacyl­tRNA synthetase? ANSWER: ANSWER: It binds the mRNA before the ribosome and guides the ribosome to the correct binding place. It recognizes and binds a specific codon on mRNA during translation. It contains the gene coding for a protein. It synthesizes amino acids. It attaches amino acids to a specific tRNA. It synthesizes tRNA.
11/20/13 Chapter 17 assignment - Transcription, RNA processing, and Translation session.masteringbiology.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2196984 36/68 Correct The process of translation, or protein synthesis, is a crucial part of the maintenance of living organisms. Proteins are constantly in use and will break down eventually, so new ones must always be available. If protein synthesis breaks down or stops, then the organism dies. Protein Synthesis (1 of 3): Overview (BioFlix tutorial) In eukaryotic cells, the nuclear DNA codes for the synthesis of most of the cell’s proteins. Each step of protein synthesis occurs in a specific part of the cell. In addition, various forms of RNA play key roles in the processes of protein synthesis. Before beginning this tutorial, watch the Protein Synthesis animation. Pay particular attention to the cellular locations where the various steps of protein synthesis occur in eukaryotic cells, as well as the different types of RNA and how they function.

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