though the role and performance of innovation is different in the North and the

Though the role and performance of innovation is

This preview shows page 41 - 42 out of 136 pages.

though the role and performance of innovation is different in the North and the South. The way we use the IS notion also has to be different. On a global scale, the implications of low-car-bon development are very different for individual countries due to their different conditions and re- sources, e.g., in areas such as technological com- petence, financial resources, and the presence of wind, biomass or hydropower. In the South, LICS are generally weaker in scale, scope, and invest- ment, and system components are neither well connected nor coordinated, with the result that these countries are rarely well prepared for devel- oping new energy technology (Sagar, Bremner & Grubb, 2009). Moreover, the majority of compe- tences underpinning renewable energy technolo- gies are concentrated in the North. Even though innovation competences are undergoing a global redistribution, further improvement of existing, and the development of new, renewable energy technologies are expected to happen mostly in the North. As a consequence, international technology transfer and collaboration in the field of renewable energy technology must be a central dimension of low-carbon development. For many developing countries, the key process for addressing energy needs can be summarised thus: expand affordable energy supplies and ser- vices, improve energy efficiency, transform tra- ditional renewable energy systems into modern ones, and simultaneously improve and gradu-ally dismantle fossil energy systems. 9 In contrast, the technology needs emerging from the en- ergy needs are to: accelerate technology transfers, adapt the latter technologies to local ecological, cultural, and economic conditions and to unad- dressed local needs, and, in turn, stimulate broad dissemination. Large competence gaps between local needs and local capabilities are frequent (Sa- gar, 2013). The implications of supporting low- carbon development are thus quite di fferent for LICS in the North and in the South. However, this is not merely a process of diff usion and ad-aptation initiated from the North. It is primarily a process of strengthening LICS in the South so that energy systems can gradually become more innovative and capable of meeting local needs (section 4.4). 2.2 LICS and low-carbon development A discussion of the specific case of low-carbon de- velopment presupposes an analysis of the role of learning, innovation, and competence building. This involves much more than R&D, R&D-based innovation, and innovation in high-tech activities, which seem to be the most common focus areas. It requires a much broader approach, one that includes an analysis of the structure and change of a number of systems of learning, innovation, and competence building, which support, or may be induced to support, low-carbon development. Since such development must be seen as a process of radical change, it is clear that it involves inno-vation systems on several levels (for example local, national, and even global levels) and many sectors and technologies.
Image of page 41
Image of page 42

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 136 pages?

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors