e.g. Jerusalem, how much of West Bank and Golan Heights will be returned • only Sinai was entirely returned • 1993 - Oslo Accords between Israel and Palestinians • shifted out of phase of Arab-Israeli conflict 3) 1993-present: end of the Cold War • end of Cold War was one reason why Oslo Accords were possible • 2 aspects: • 1 - Israelis and Palestinians recognized each other • 2- attempt to create a permanent status for Palestine • how far Israelis would withdraw from occupied territories, what would be fate of Jerusalem, would Palestinians be allowed to return to their homes 59
Friday, September 23, 2016 Week 8 Wednesday Contemporary Middle East (from end of mandate system to today) Period beginning in 1929 & 1939 might be considered a coherent period in its own right. 1929: Great Depression 1939: WWII • Great Depression and WWII marks the beginning of a state and economic model that begins in Western Europe and North America and spreads throughout the world. As a result of Great Depression, governments begin to intervene in their economies. • John Maynard Keynes - states should intervene in money supply in order to keep prices stable and full employment • States should provide services for populations in order to prevent dictatorial movements from the right or the left from taking over. • WWII - the invention of war economies - workers had to be mobilized for war production, which meant even further centralized planning than had occurred in the Great Depression. • From this, we get the emergence of an activist state and of a new ruling bargain between states and their populations. • Ruling bargain - What are the rights and obligations of each? • benefits for compliance - foundation for the state and global economics from 1929 & 1939 - ~1975 • period of decolonization - end of formally colonized states and mandate system • right of national self-determination (includes control over resources for your own ends), enshrined in League of Nations as a collective right • The right of a collectivity • To ensure that the world economy was going to work well, there was a system put in place the year before the end of WWII. • Bretton Woods System - American imposed system that most of the world joined • currencies were fixed to the dollars, $35/oz of gold • Middle East slowly being engulfed in the idea of Keynesian economics and the new state. • What happened in the Middle East to make this attractive? • 1) heritage of spelling out rights and responsibilities of citizens and governments - dates back to the tanzimaat • 2) imperialism - Europeans who were still in Middle East (during WWII) wanted to ensure that the places they were in would remain quiet so they began to export model of Keynesian economics to Middle East in order to resolve economic crisis and nurture populations • When Europeans left, all the institutions they had established were in place. Hence Middle Eastern state system was a replica of European state system.
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