active state. Because sodium can enter the cell to initiate an action potential only when the channels are active, the time between action potentials is greatly lengthened, the neurons cannot fire at an excessive rate, and excessive muscle contractions that occur in grand mal-type seizures are prevented. Phenytoin does not directly affect the function of calcium channels or levels of GABA and glutamate. Question 6 1 out of 1 points Morphine has been prescribed for a 28-year-old man with severe pain due to a back injury. The nurse will advise the patient to avoid Response Feedback: The nurse should advise the patient to avoid alcohol and any other CNS depressants while taking morphine. These combinations can cause serious respiratory depression and sedation. Vitamin C, fatty foods, and dairy products are not known to interact with morphine. Question 7 1 out of 1 points A middle-aged patient was diagnosed with major depression after a suicide attempt several months ago and has failed to respond appreciably to treatment with SSRIs. As a result, his psychiatrist has prescribed phenelzine. When planning this patient's subsequent care, what nursing diagnosis should the nurse prioritize? Response Feedback: MAOIs such as phenelzine carry a significant risk of injury that results from the multiple interactions associated with these drugs. Infection, impaired tissue perfusion, and constipation are less common, and less serious, adverse effects. Question 8 1 out of 1 points A nurse who works at an outpatient mental health clinic follows numerous clients who have schizophrenia, many of whom are being treated with olanzapine (Zyprexa).
Which of the following clients likely has the highest susceptibility to the adverse effects of olanzapine? Response Feedback: The use of olanzapine creates a significant risk of hyperglycemia. This is of particular concern in patients and clients who have diabetes mellitus. Smoking affects the pharmacodynamics of olanzapine, but this is less likely to result in serious adverse effects. Obesity, low BMI, and recent antibiotic use are not associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse effects. Question 9 1 out of 1 points A nurse will be prepared to administer naloxone (Narcan) to a patient who has had an overdose of morphine. Repeated doses of Narcan will be necessary because Narcan Response Feedback: The duration of the morphine may be longer than the duration of naloxone. Therefore, naloxone has a shorter half-life than morphine. Repeated doses may be necessary to maintain reversal of the opiate's effects. Naloxone does not increase the action of morphine, and it causes the respiratory rate to increase, not decrease. Dosage strength is not associated with drug duration. Question 10 1 out of 1 points A 30-year-old woman is taking phenelzine (Nardil) 30mg PO tid. The nurse knows that at that dosage, the patient will need to be carefully monitored for Response Feedback: The nurse will closely monitor for the adverse effects of phenelzine related to the anticholinergic effect of the drug, such as dizziness that tends to be more pronounced at dosages above 45 mg/day. Dizziness is also a sign of a phenelzine drug overdose. Constipation and dry
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- Fall '13
- Pharmacology, Week 5, adverse effects, Benzodiazepine, Advanced Pharmacology