There are 2 fundamental processes of learning 1

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There are 2 fundamental processes of learning – (1) classical condition (2) instrumental conditioning o Processes are very basic learning processes that can be studied in animals Behaviorism – study external behavior and focus on objective parts of human/animal behavior o First moment when psychology vegan to become a science o People weren’t just theorizing and looking at case studies – they began to systematically study behavior Pavlov – Russian physiologist not psychologist, interested in process of digestion
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o Conducted a study of digestion w/ dogs to understand mechanisms of salivation o Dogs would begin to salivate just when someone walked into the room w/o any food present Classical conditioning or Pavlovian condition – neutral stimulus conditioned to produce a response o Before conditioning – unconditioned stimulus produces unconditioned response Unconditioned stimulus – unconditionally, naturally, or automatically triggers a response Unconditioned response – unlearned response that occurs naturally o Before conditioning – neutral stimulus produced no conditioned response Neutral stimulus – doesn’t produce a response without learning, produces no specific response o During conditioning – unconditioned and neutral stimulus produced a conditioned response By pairing the 2 stimulus together, you learn there is an association between the two Dog is presented with a whistle and food at the same time – dog associated whistle w/ food o After conditioning – neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus & produced conditioned response Whistle – neutral stimulus before learning, conditioned stimulus after learning Salivation – unconditioned response before learning, conditioned response after learning What’s Cooking in the Lab You learn to associate things with each other in a long chain of events o Ex – poop > toilet > toilet brush > apple juice, makes you not want to drink apple juice stirred w/ toilet brush Psychologically prepared – you’re predisposed to learn something rather than others o Ex – you are more likely to find poop disgusting rather than tomatoes Some of the most important early studies in conditioning were done in context of emotion – emotion of fear John Watson Experiments John Watson – psychologist who used infants to study the power of conditioning o Showed that strong emotions could be learned in 1 situation by conditioning then generalized Transferred to other similar situations w/o having to repeat original conditioning Conditioned infants to fear a white rat that they had liked at first o Loud gong was struck each time the rate was presented – gong startled the infant
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o After a while, only the appearance of the rat was enough to make the infant cry and be fearful Study w/ little Albert who was an orphan was controversial and unethical w/o informed consent
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