Before 1820 the rural community accounted for eighty

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farming life significantly. Before 1820, the rural community accounted for eighty percent of consumption of farmers’ goods (Hurt 127). With the improvements in transportation, twenty-five percent of farmers’ products were sold for commercial gain, and by 1825, farming “became a business rather than a way of life” (Hurt 128). This business required farmers to specialize their production and caused most farmers to give “less attention to the production of surplus commodities like wheat, tobacco, pork, or beef” (Hurt 128). The increase in specialization encouraged some farmers to turn to technology to increase their production and capitalize on commercial markets (Hurt 172). The technology farmers used around 1820 was developed from three main sources: Europe, coastal Indian tribes in America, and domestic modifications made from the first two sources’ technologies. Through time, technology improved, and while some farmers clung to their time-tested technologies, others were eager to find alternatives to these technologies. These farmers often turned to current developments in Great Britain and received word of their technological improvements through firsthand knowledge by talking with immigrants and travelers. Farmers also began planning and conducting 1. Danhof includes “Delaware, Maryland, all states north of the Potomac and Ohio rivers, Missouri, and states to its north” when referring to the northern states (11). In-text citations occur after the quote but before the period. The author’s/ authors’ name/s go before the page number with no comma in between. Insert the footnote directly after the phrase or clause to which it refers. Footnotes should be double- spaced, in 12-point Times New Roman font, and indented 0.5” from the margin. Use footnotes to explain a point in your paper that does not quite fit in with the rest of the paragraph.
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Angeli 4 experiments, and although they lacked a truly scientific approach, these farmers engaged in experiments to obtain results and learn from the results. 2 Agricultural organizations were then formed to “encourage . . . experimentation, hear reports, observe results, and exchange critical comments” (Danhof 53). Thus, new knowledge was transmitted orally from farmer to farmer, immigrant to farmer, and traveler to farmer, which could result in the miscommunication of this new scientific knowledge. Therefore, developments were made for knowledge to be transmitted and recorded in a more permanent, credible way: by print. The Distribution of New Knowledge. Before 1820 and prior to the new knowledge farmers were creating, farmers who wanted print information about agriculture had their choice of agricultural almanacs and even local newspapers to receive information (Danhof 54). After 1820, however, agricultural writing took more forms than almanacs and newspapers. From 1820 to 1870, agricultural periodicals were responsible for spreading new knowledge among farmers. In his published dissertation The American Agricultural Press 1819-1860 , Albert Lowther Demaree presents a “description of the general content of [agricultural journals]” (xi). These journals began in 1819 and were
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