the Muslim forces invading Spain, and Theodemir, the Christian King of aregion in southern Spain.In the name of God, the merciful and compassionate. We [Abd al-Aziz’sforces] will not harass him [Theodmir], nor remove him from power. Hisfollowers will not be killed or taken prisoner, nor will they be separated fromtheir women and children. They will not be coerced in matters of religion,their churches will not be burned, nor will sacred objects be taken from therealm, as long as he remains sincere and fulfills these conditions that wehave set for him: He will not give shelter to fugitives, nor to our enemies,nor encourage any protected person to fear us, nor conceal news of ourenemies. He and [each of] his men shall [also] pay one dinar every year,together with four measures of wheat, four measures of barley, four liquidmeasures of concentrated fruit juice, four liquid measures of vinegar, fourof honey, and four of olive oil. Slaves must each pay half of this amount.Source: The Treaty of Tudmir, 713 CE.Vocabulary
Document C: Fred DonnerFred Donner is a historian at the University of Chicago who specializes inearly Islam and early Islamic expansion. Below is an excerpt from his bookwhere he challenges some of the common knowledge about early Islamicconquests.