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C.Resistance to Change Change creates resistance to change in every organization; it is the react response fromthe side of the old employees. When change strategies have implemented in theorganization the employees quickly respond by voicing complaints, engaging in workslowdown, threatening to go on strike, etc. but care should be taken by the changemanagement expert to overcome the resistance. Major force for resistance to change: resistance to change forces categorize into twomain heading, 1) individual sources and 2) organizational sources 1). Individual Source Resistance to Change Includes the Following:-*Habit* Security* Selective information processing,* Economic factors and *fear of the unknown. 2). Organizational Sources for Resistance to Change Include the Following.Limited focus on changeOrganization structural inertiaThreat to expertiseThreat to established power relationshipGroup inertia and Threat to established resource allocation. 3). Overcoming to Resistance to Change.Overcoming to resistance to change means to use the tactics to reduce the intensity ofthe resistance to change, the change agents have the ability to use these tactics are asunder:- a)Implementing change fairly.
b)Selection people who accept change c)Education and communication d) Participation e)Building support and commitment f)Manipulation and cooptation D. Organizational Change Managing Approaches When change management taken place in the organization, now the question is howbest one can manage change. There are four approaches to change management. Lewins classic three step model of change process, Kotters eight step plan,Action research, and Organizational development. *According to the Lewins model, the organization must follow three steps forsuccessful change management, which are. Unfreezing: the status quo, changing to overcome the pressure of both individualresistance and group conformity. Movement; desire end state, a change process that transforms the organization from thestatus quo to a desired end state. And Refreezingthe new change to make it permanent, stabilizing a change intervention bybalancing driving and restraining forces.  *Kotters Eight Step Plan. 5.Strengthening of employees’ skills to act Lewins three steps change model.UnfreezingMovementRefreezing( Source Stephen, 2005)
6.Generation of short-term gains 7.Consolidation of results and production of even more change 8.Institutionalization of new ways of working in the culture*Action Research Action research is also a change management approach in which systematically datacollected and then change is taken according that data indication. *Organizational Development Organizational development plays an important role in the change management nochange be best implemented without organizational development, it can be define as acollection of planned change interventions, built on humanistic democratic values, that