Do students perform equally well on all test items

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Do students perform equally well on all test items that are meant to measure the same thing ? Is scoring subjective? Do different raters score students’ answers differently? Characteristics of Good Assessment: Standardization Standardization: Uniformity of Testing Procedures. Increases reliability o Is the content assessed the same for all? o Are the assessment tasks the same for all? o Are instructions / timing the same for same for all? o Are evaluation criteria the same for all? Characteristics of Good Assessment: Validity Validity: Does The Test Measure What it is Supposed to Measure? o Content Validity: Do test items adequately represent / cover the content area assessed? o Construct Validity: Do test items measure a particular psychological / educational characteristic as defined? o Predictive Validity: Do students’ scores predict success on later task Issues of Bias and Fairness: o Bias: A test is biased when the content or administration of a test influences the scores of certain types of test takers for reasons that are irrelevant or extraneous to the ability being measured. Cultural Bias: When performance on test is influenced by cultural factors that are irrelevant or extraneous to the purpose for which the test is designed o Fairness: The use of specific test results in educational decision making is unfair if - The outcomes are biased against certain groups If the test was not designed for the purpose that it is being used for Sometimes a test may be unbiased but its results may be misused Sources of Bias: o Opportunities to learn certain arbitrary and specific pieces of information needed to answer individual items correctly E.g. WISC (IQ test) "Who invented the lightbulb?
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o Familiarity with language of testing o Testwiseness: Familiarity with nature of the test, test items, test taking procedures etc. Testing Students with Special Needs: Adapt standard administration procedures o Time o Individual rather than group administration o Reading & motor skill requirement may present barriers Characteristics of Good Assessment: Practicality Practicality: Ease of Test Use o Time to develop assessment o Ease of administration to large groups o Expense for materials o Cost in terms of instructional time lost o Speed and ease of evaluation Types of Assessments: Standardized Tests Developed by test publishing companies for commercial use Can only be administered, scored, & interpreted by trained personnel Achievement Tests: What has student learned? Identify students’ content knowledge (Available in individual & group formats) Diagnostic Tests: What are the student’s cognitive or information processing strengths and weaknesses? (Individual testing) Aptitude Tests: Measure abilities developed over many years and predict how well student will do in the future Informal Classroom Assessment Use: Formative evaluation Format: o Ask questions o Listen to discussions o Observe behavior & performance during activities Pros: o Practicality Cons o Unreliable
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o Not standardized o Low validity - evaluation biases, e.g., halo effects
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