A larger pressure than the atmosphere so mm levels hg

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a larger pressure than the atmosphere, so (mm) levels Hg in difference (mmHg) Pressure (mmHg) Pressure Pressure Pressure Pressure atmosphere gas h atmosphere gas + = + =
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 12 Boyle’s Law pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume constant T and amount of gas graph P vs V is curve graph P vs 1/ V is straight line as P increases, V decreases by the same factor P x V = constant P 1 x V 1 = P 2 x V 2
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 13 Boyle’s Experiment added Hg to a J-tube with air trapped inside used length of air column as a measure of volume Length of Air in Column (in) Difference in Hg Levels (in) 48 0.0 44 2.8 40 6.2 36 10.1 32 15.1 28 21.2 24 29.7 22 35.0
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 14 Boyle's Expt. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Volume of Air, in 3 Pressure, inH
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 15 Inverse Volume vs Pressure of Air, Boyle's Expt. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 Inv. Volume, in -3 Pressure, inH
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 16 When you double the pressure on a gas, the volume is cut in half (as long as the temperature and amount of gas do not change)
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 17 Boyle’s Law and Diving since water is denser than air, for each 10 m you dive below the surface, the pressure on your lungs increases 1 atm at 20 m the total pressure is 3 atm if your tank contained air at 1 atm pressure you would not be able to inhale it into your lungs
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P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Example 5.2 – A cylinder with a movable piston has a volume of 7.25 L at 4.52 atm. What is the volume at 1.21 atm? since P and V are inversely proportional, when the pressure decreases ~4x, the volume should increase ~4x, and it does V 1 =7.25 L, P 1 = 4.52 atm, P 2 = 1.21 atm V 2 , L Check: Solution: Concept Plan: Relationships: Given: Find: 2 1 1 2 P V P V = V 1 , P 1 , P 2 V 2 ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 L 1 . 27 atm 1.21 L 7.25 atm 4.52 P V P V 2 1 1 2 = = =
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 19 Practice – A balloon is put in a bell jar and the pressure is reduced from 782 torr to 0.500 atm. If the volume of the balloon is now 2780 mL, what was it originally?
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P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 , 1 atm = 760 torr (exactly) A balloon is put in a bell jar and the pressure is reduced from 782 torr to 0.500 atm. If the volume of the balloon is now 2780 mL, what was it originally? since P and V are inversely proportional, when the pressure decreases ~2x, the volume should increase ~2x, and it does V 2 =2780 mL, P 1 = 762 torr, P 2 = 0.500 atm V 1 , mL Check: Solution: Concept Plan: Relationships: Given: Find: 1 2 2 1 P V P V = V 1 , P 1 , P 2 V 2 ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 mL 1350 atm 1.03 L 2780 atm 0.500 P V P V 1 2 2 1 = = = atm 03 . 1 torr 760 atm 1 torr 782 = ×
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 21 Charles’ Law volume is directly proportional to temperature as T increases, V also increases constant P and amount of gas graph of V vs T is straight line Kelvin T = Celsius T + 273 V = constant x T if T measured in Kelvin 2 2 1 1 T V T V =
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Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 22 Charles’ Law – A Molecular View the pressure of gas inside and outside the balloon are the same
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