About 13 of black students attend schools in which at least 90 of the students

About 13 of black students attend schools in which at

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About 1/3 of black students attend schools in which at least 90% of the students are non-white (Orfield, Yun, 1999). At the same time, most white students go to schools that are nearly all white, even in cities that have large minority populations (many white families send their children to private schools rather than public schools). These figures represent the highest rates of school segregation reported in the last 25 years. Kozel, The Shame of the Nation, updated study of American schools, they have gotten worse since the early 1990’s. Schools where the majority of students are not white are likely to be schools where poverty is concentrated. This is not the case with majority-white schools, which almost always enroll higher proportions of middle-class students (Orfield, Yun, 1999). Theories of Prejudice Sociological explanations about prejudice emphasize that it is something outside of people creating prejudice, not something inside of people. Structural functionalism
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1. Prejudice is functional and is shaped by the social environment 2. Formation of in-groups and out-groups 3. Functional: creates in-group solidarity. 4. Dysfunctional: destroys human relationships. Conflict theory 1. How do the arrangements of groups benefit those in positions of power? 2. Pitting workers of different races/ethnicities against each other keeps elites in power. -Split-labor market : Workers divided along racial-ethnic and gender lines. Symbolic interaction 1. How do labels affect perception and create prejudice? 2. The labels we learn affect the way we see people. 3. Selective perception : Labels lead us to see certain things while they blind us to others. 4. Self-fulfilling prophecies: Labels can create these, one is expected to act a certain way based on their category. What can be done to reduce prejudice and discrimination? Individual change 1. Education 2. Focusing on discrepancies between beliefs and attitudes and behaviors. 3. De-automatization : Reprogramming the brain by consciously attending to and responding to prejudice. Intergroup contact: Six conditions of contact that reduce prejudice 1. Mutual interdependence 2. Common goal 3. Equal status 4. Friendly and informal setting 5. Interactions with multiple members of each group (avoids token-ism, like Token on South Park, that one person’s actions become representative of the entire group) 6. Social norms promoting equality Societal change (through laws, social movements, and political action) 1. Institutional change 2. Norm change 3. Economic and political changes to promote equality
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