similarities and differences between them Information can have two basic

Similarities and differences between them information

This preview shows page 6 - 7 out of 7 pages.

similarities and differences between them Information can have two basic aspects: physical and experiential one Reason and Responsibility- Feinberg/Shafer-Landau There are two kinds of AI (artificial intelligence): strong and weak/cautious o Weak AI- the principle value of the computer in the study of the mind is that it gives us a powerful tool Ex. Allows us to make and test hypothesis in a rigorous/precise fashion Programs allow us to test the explanations of psychology o Strong AI- the computer is not just a tool to study the mind, the computer (if programmed properly) in fact IS the mind!!! .... the computers can literally be said to understand and have cognitive states The programs are themselves the explanations Roger Schank o Created a program with the aim to simulate the human ability to understand stories o Humans have the ability to understand a story and answer questions about it without the information explicitly being stated in the story…Schank wanted AI to do that o When told a story and asked a question, his machine will print out answers that we would expect human beings to give Those who support AI say that o ****Not only is the machine simulating human ability, but also: CLAIM 1) the machine can literally be said to UNDERSTAND the story and answer questions about it CLAIM 2) what the machine and its programs do EXPLAINS the human ability to understand the story and answers questions about it o ****Author says that both claims are NOT SUPPORTED by Schank’s work Author suggests a test: ask oneself what it would be like if my mind actually worked on the principles that the theory says all minds work on o ***Author pointing out why each claim is wrong: CLAIM 1- program understands story The computer could merely be just well programmed…..that it recognizes patterns, but the language is gibberish…it just has practice putting together certain things that are expected of it…. Ex. Kind of like if you were given several sets of Chinese, and you got enough to see a pattern, so you know what is being asked of you…even though you cant translate it, you can put forth the proper characters and phrases CLAIM 2- the program explains human understanding
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The computer and program are functioning, but there is no understanding Just because you can use artificial intelligence for Chinese, doesn’t mean that when you understand stuff in English that it has anything to do with computer programs How we define “understanding” o We use it metaphorically as well o Understanding does not always mean in the sense that humans do o We can say that “the door knows when to open because of a sensor”…but is that true understanding? Systems theory- an individual is a part of a whole system, and the system does not understand the story……understanding is a part of the whole system o Authors response- let the individual internalize all of the elements of the system
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