- Imperialist vs Anti-Imperialists - During the Spanish-American War, there were those who were in favor of imperialism and those who were opposed to imperialism - Famous imperialists: McKinley, Roosevelt - Famous anti-imperialists: Cleveland (president before McKinley), Mark Twain - Philippine War (1898-1902) - Philippine Guerillas battled US troops for independence - 4300 Americans and at least 50000 Filipino natives were killed - US troops committed savage atrocities against Filipino people - Emilio Aguinaldo - Led the Filipino independence movement against the US - Captured by US troops in March 1901 and urged his followers to stop fighting - US military transferred authority to Taft and he became governor of the Philippines - Open Door Policy - McKinley wanted a way to protect US interests in China, without risking war, so he created the policy that would allow for a system of trade in China that would be open to all countries equally - “Asking only the open door for ourselves, we are opening the door for everyone” - Boxer Rebellion - Secret Chinese martial arts society nationalistic goals launched a revolt against foreigners in China - An international force made up of troops from the US, Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan quelled the uprising - US involvement helps win support for “Open Door” policy from England and Germany - Platt Amendment (Cuba) (1902) - Granted political “independence” to Cuba - Article 1: Cuba can never enter into any treaty or compact with other countries except the US - Article 2: Cuba cannot take on any debt they can't pay for - Article 3: US can intervene when necessary - Article 4:Cuba must have proper sanitation plans to prevent diseases - Article 5: US can build naval station in Cuba. (Guantanamo Bay (still exists)) - Panama Canal - Roosevelt sent John Hay (Secretary of State) to Columbia to negotiate with a diplomat that would allow construction of the Panama Canal (a 82 km waterway in Panama that connects Atlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean). Under pressure from US, the diplomat signed the treaty but the Colombian Senate rejected it - So Roosevelt found another way around the Colombian govt - Used US troops to “maintain order,” which allowed a rebellion in Panama to succeed - Panama was recognized as an independent nation - Panama Canal now basically belonged to US - Monroe Doctrine (1823) - US policy that opposes European colonialism in the Americas - Roosevelt Corollary (Extension to Monroe Doctrine) (1904) - U.S. has the right to protect its economic interests in South and Central America, and the U.S. has the right to exercise international police force to restore order - “Big Stick” Diplomacy (1901-1917) - “Speak softly but carry a big stick” - He believed there were 2 different types of nations: “civilized” (Whites) and “uncivilized” (non- Whites) Economic development was also part of the distinction, he believed Japan was civilized
since they were industrializing - He believed that the civilized nations had a duty and right to intervene in the affairs of these backward nations in order to bring order and stability. These ideas brought Roosevelt to expand in
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