1417 from text the mutualism is obligatory for the

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slide Fig. 14.17 from text The mutualism is obligatory for the ants. However, the mutualism is facultative for the acacia (can live without ants, but not so well). C. Cattle and small birds. The latter eat ectoparasites on the cattle skin, and they thereby obtain food. VI. Another kind is trophic mutualism. Mutualists can be integrated into the body of the partner and help with essential substances (they are then called endosymbionts ): A. Termites and flagellated protozoa. The former eat wood but can’t digest cellulose, but the protozoa in the digestive tract do the latter and thereby make glucose for the termite. slides Both obligatory. B. One step further is corals and zooxanthellae. The latter are protozoa with chloroplasts living in the tissue (gastrodermis) of corals. They photosynthesize and produce glucose and oxygen. Both obligatory. VII. Commensalism is + 0. A. One species benefits and the other is not affected. Cattle and cattle egret an example. Cattle stir up insects which the egret birds eat (so +); the cattle are unaffected (so 0).
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