Excessive fear of situations in which a person might

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Excessive fear of situations in which a person might do something embarrassing or be evaluated negatively by others Ø Extreme fear of being embarrassed Ø Sweating, tachycardia and dyspnea Specific Phobia Ø Fear of specific objects or situations that could cause harm (snakes, lizards, heights) Ø Reaction is excessive, unreasonable, and inappropriate Ø Irrational fear restricts the individuals activities and interferes with his or her daily living Ø Exposure to the phobia produces symptoms of palpitations, sweating, dizziness, and SOB Predisposing Factors to Phobias Conditioned response Direct learning or imitation (ex: mother who exhibits a phobia) Negative self statements/ irrational beliefs Life experiences
OCD Presence of obsessions, compulsions or both Severity is significant enough to cause distress or impairment in social, occupational and other areas Pt recognizes that behaviors are excessive and unreasonable but cannot stop due to the feeling of relief of discomfort Common compulsions: Ø Hand washing Ø Ordering Ø Checking Ø Praying Ø Counting Ø Repeating words silently DSM-5: recurrent or persistant thoughts, urges or images that are experienced at some time during disturbance, intrusive and unwanted, causes anxiety and distress Ø Acts are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress Ø Obsessions/compulsions are time consuming and may take more than 1 hour a day Predisposing Factors to OCD and related disorders Psychoanalytic theory: underdeveloped ego for a variety of different reasons; regression to an earlier developmental stage (anal-sadistic phase); with these two combined it produces symptoms of obsessions and compulsions Learning theory: conditional response to a traumatic event Treatment: 1. Individual psychotherapy: marked lessening of anxiety by having the patient talk about their difficulties; psychologists give logical and rational explanations 2. Cognitive therapy: alters cognitive distortions 3. Behavior therapy: positive and negative reinforcements in an effort to modify hair pulling behaviors 4. Systemic desensitization: gradually exposed to phobic stimuli; training in relaxation techniques; only after they have mastered the relaxation techniques does the person get exposed to the stimuli 5. Implosion therapy: client must imagine situations that he/she finds extremely frightening for a prolonged period of time; no relaxation taught; “floods” the client with information concerning situations that trigger anxiety 6. Meds: antianxiety agents; anxiolytics, antihypertensives, antidepressants Chapter 19 Post traumatic Stress Disorder Anxiety disorder that occurs after experiencing or witnessing overwhelming traumatic events that resulted in intense fear, helplessness or horror Symptoms must be present for more than 1 month and cause significant interference with social, occupational and other areas of functioning DSM-5: exposure in one or more ways: 1. Directly experience trauma 2. Witnessing the trauma 3. Learning about traumatic events 4.

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