A Tour of the Cell Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cytoplasm/cytosol
house organelles
chloroplast
carry out photosynthesis
virions
inert virus particles
do bacteria have DNA?
yes
peroxisome
membranous organelles containing enzymes to break down peroxides, fatty acids, alcohol, etc.
is flagellum a membranous organelle?
no
ribosomes
manufacture proteins, made of ribosomal RNA & protein. may be located in cytoplasm or on surface of ER
flagella
arrangement of microtubules for movement; sperm
phagocytosis
engulfing particles by surrounding them and having their membrane pinch off
prokaryotic
no nucleous bacteria and archaea
organelles
Any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells.
mitochondria
site of cell respiration; generates ATP from breakdown of food molecules
outermost portion of prokaryotic cells
cell wall
protein coat
surrounds the viral genetic material
microscope best for studying internal architecture of cells
TEM
ECM-extracellular matrixq
substance outside of cells-between them (collagen, fibronectins)
cytoskeleton
network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
cilia
many 9+2 arrangement of microtubules on surface of cell
cilia (cilium)
A short appendage containing microtubules in eukaryotic cells. A motile cilium is specialized for locomotion or moving fluid past the cell; it is formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules (the “9 + 2” arrangement) ensheathed in an extension of the plasma membrane. A primary cilium is usually nonmotile and plays a sensory and signaling role; it lacks the two inner microtubules (the “9 + 0” arrangement).
peroxisomes
convert waste to hydrogen peroxide and then to water
is the ribosome/centriole a membranous organelle?
NOPPEEE !!!!
further clarified the cell theory by stating that "cells only come from preexisting cells"
Virchow
metabolism
total of all the chemical reactions occurring in the cell
how effectively can a light microscope magnify up to ?
1000x
how are flagella composed
9+2 arrangement of microtubule
dynein
protein motor molecule on cilia and flagella; powered by ATP
chromosomes
name given to chromatin (DNA and proteins) when the cell is preparing to divide (visible under a light microscope)
mitochondrial matrix
The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle, as well as ribosomes and DNA.
centrosome
A structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that functions as a microtubule-organizing center and is important during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
actin
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments (actin filaments) in muscle and other kinds of cells.
tight junction
A type of intercellular junction between animal cells that prevents the leakage of material through the space between cells.
which microscope uses visible forms of electromagnetic radiation to view small objects?
light microscope
what is used to make polypeptides once genetic mat'l leaves the nucleus?
RNA
how many times larger are plant/animal cells to bacterial cells?
10 times
central vacoule
organelle in plants that expands and contracts due to water loss/gain
nucleoid
region where the cell's DNA is located not enclosed in membrane proka.
proteoglycans
A large molecule consisting of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attached, found in the extracellular matrix or animal cells. A proteoglycan may consist of up to 95% carbohydrate.
endomembrane system
The collection of membranes inside and surrounding a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles; includes the plasma membrane, the nuclear envelope, the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles and vacuoles.
dyneins
In cilia and flagella, a large motor protein extending from one microtubule doublet to the adjacent doublet. ATP hydrolysis drives changes in dynein shape that lead to bending of cilia and flagella.
intermediate filaments
A component of the cytoskeleton that includes filaments intermediate in size between microtubules and microfilaments.
fungus have a cell wall. what is it composed of?
chitin
nuclear pore
a hole in the nuclear membrane. it allows communication b/w nucleus & rest of the cell
resolving power
measure of the clarity of the image; minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguised as two separate points
light microscope LM
visible light is passed through the specimen and then through glass lenses can magnify up to 1000 times actual size of specimen
electron microscope (EM)
A microscope that uses magnets to focus an electron beam on or through a specimen, resulting in a practical resolution of a hundredfold greater than that of a light microscope using standard techniques.
central vacuole
In a mature plant cell, a large membranous sac with diverse roles in growth, storage and sequestration of toxic substances.
vesicles
A membranous sac in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.
electron microscope
a beam of electrons is focused on a specimen (resolution of ~ 0.1 nm)
secondary cell wall
In plants cells, a strong and durable matrix that is often deposited in several laminated layers around the plasma membrane and provides protection and support.
what does contractile vacuole do ?
pump excessive fluid out of cell
nucleolus
synthesis of rRNA
nucleus
instructions for protein synthesis
chromatin
diffuse DNA and proteins
cristae
folds in mitochondria's inner membrane
how do 'most' bacteria move?
flagellum
is ER a membranous organelle?
yes
plasma membrane
membrane enclosing the cytoplasm
vacuoles
A membrane-bounded vesicle whose specialized function varies in different kinds of cells.
all animals are made of cells
Schwann
pili
the tiny fingerlike projections on their external surface that prokaryotes can attach to surfaces by
saprophytic
feeding on dead animals (most fungi)
largest organelle in most plants
central vacuole
how many membranes do mitochondria have?
two
how many membranes do chloroplasts have?
three
centrioles
paired organelles; 9+3 arrangement of microtubules; organizes mitotic spindle for chromosome movement
thylakoids
flattened membranous sacs in the chloroplast
Golgi apparatus
modifies, packages and stores proteins; made of flattened sacs
capsule
jellylike outer coating of many prokaryotes
smooth ER
synthesis of lipids; detox of drugs/poisons; storage of calcium ions
grana
disks within the stroma of a chloroplast
is the golgi apparatus a membranous organelle?
yes
what prokaryote is a pseudopod located in?
amoeba
scientist that stated that "all plants are composed of cells"
Schleiden
microtubules
straight hollow tubes in a cell's cytoskeleton
fimbriae
hairlike structures that are used for attachment in bacteria cells, NOT MOVEMENT. they are involved in conjugation & phage receptors
cytoplasmic streaming
circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
food vacoule
membrane bound sac formed by phagocytosis
cell wall
plant cell organelle; protects the cell, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water
cytoplasm
region between the nucleus and the membrane surrounding the cell
mitochondria(mitochondrion)
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration; uses oxygen to break down organic molecules and synthesize ATP.
intermediate filament
holds things in place (ex. holds nucleus in place)
wavelength limit in light scopes
400 - 700 nm
what is the cytoskeleton involved in?
motion and support
the person who identified the nucleus inside of cells
Robert Brown
ultracentrifuges
spin up to 80,000 rpm applying more than 500,000 g forces to particles
antoni van leewenhoek
crafted lens to visualize living cells
glycoproteins
A protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates.
cell fractionation
The disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centrifuge at successively higher speeds.
what is cytoplasmic streaming?
the flowing of cytoplasm in eurkaryotic cells
what buds off of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and travels to the Golgi Apparatus for further processing?
transport vesicle
where are calcium ions that can cause a muscle to contract stored within?
smooth ER
transport vesicle
vesicles created from parts of the ER membrane; they carry proteins from one part of the cell to another
Transmission electron microscope
is used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells
primary cell wall
In plants, a relatively thin and flexible layer that surrounds the plasma membrane of a young cell.
plasmodesmata (plasmodesma)
An open channel through the cell wall that connects the cytoplasm of adjacent plants cells, allowing water, small solutes and some larger molecules to pass between the cells.
where were the first 'scopes used & what was bad about them?
europe; color distortion
TEM-transmission electron microscope
aims a beam of electrons through a thin section of the specimen then uses electromagnets as lenses to focuse and magnify section of preserved cells - used to study internal ultrastructure
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
A microscope that passes an electron beam through very thin sections stained with metal atoms and is primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells.
what do all cells have as 1 of their outermost structure?
plasma membrane
photosynthesizing organelle
chloroplasts
DNA
carry genetic information
how do amoeba move?
pseudopod
lysosomes
eat up waste in body
do prokaryotes have a cytoplasm?
yes
glycoprotein
proteins covalently bonded to carbohydrates
eukaryotic
cells containing nucleous protist fungi animals and plants
fibronectin
An extracellular glycoprotein secreted by animal cells that helps them attach to the extracellular matrix.
rough ER
make secretory proteins; membrane factory
starch granule
carbohydrate stored in amyloplasts (plastids for specialized storage & are ONLY IN PLANTS)
which is bigger: nanometer or micrometer?
micrometer
is the nucleus a membranous organelle?
yes
flagellum
longer appendages that help euglena move
heterotrophs
obtain energy from other living organisms/their dead remains
myosin
protein associated with actin that comprise muscles
tonoplast
membrane the surrounds the central vacoule in plants
resolution
the ability of an instrument to separate two objects that are close together
van Leeuwenhoek
produced 500+ single lens microscopes, discovering bacteria, human blood cells, spermatozoa & protozoa
measure of the clarity of an object
resolution
autotrophs
are able to meet their energy requirements using light/chemical energy from environment
microscope used to study the surfaces of small objects
SEM
pseudopodia
false feet; ameboid movement caused by extension and flowing of cellular extensions
contractile vacuole
freshwater protist organelle that is used as a pump for propulsion or to rid themselves of excess water
endoplasmic reticulum
membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae
granum (grana)
A stack of membrane-bounded thylakoids in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis.
endosymbiont theory
The theory that mitochondria and plastids, including chloroplasts, originated as prokaryotic cells engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic cell. The engulfed cell and its host cell then evolved into a single organism.
lysosome
a sac bounded by a single membrane, pinched off from GA & contain+transport enzymes that break down food and foreign matter
how many times is image flipped w/ compound 'scope?
three
in 1665
robert hooke first saw the cell walls
pseudopodia (pseudopodium)
A cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding.
microfilaments
A cable composed of actin proteins in the cytoplasm of almost every eukaryotic cell, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction; also known as an actin filament.
extracellular matrix (ECM)
The meshwork surrounding animal cells, consisting of glycoproteins, polysaccharides and proteoglycans synthesized and secreted by the cells.
prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes.
Tay-Sachs disease
a hereditary disease referred to as a lysososmal storage disease
unicellular vs. multicellular: pick one for yeasts & molds
yeast - unicellular
mold - multicellular
electron microscope EM
focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface
light microscope (LM)
An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images of specimens.
middle lamella
In plants, a thin layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pectins, found between the primary walls of adjacent young cells.
what is the internal skeleton composed of?
microtubules, intermediate filaments, & microfilaments
SEM-scanning electron microscope
electron beam scans the surface of the sample, which is usually coated with a thin film of gold; used for detailed study of the surface of cells
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample, coated with metal atoms, to study details of its topography.
how do yeasts vs. molds reproduce?
yeasts - asexually by fission or budding; molds - could be sexual or asexual
green
color that chloroplasts give
cytosol
a semifluid, jelly-like substance enclosed by the membrane; contains all organelles and other components
glyoxsomes
Specialized peroxisomes found in fat-storing tissues of seeds that convert fatty acids to sugar for emerging seedlings
glyoxysomes
specialized peroxisomes that convert the fatty acids in seeds to sugars, an easier energy and carbon source to transport.
cytoplasm
region between nucleus and membrane
Extracellular matrix
Consists of collagen, proteogylcans, and fibronectins.
Gap Junctions
Points that provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another with special membrane proteins.
Robert Hooke
Who first saw cell walls?
cytosol
makes up cytoplasm; semifluid in which organelles are suspended
ribosome
a cell organelle costructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits
gap junction
a cellular junction that provides cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another (similar to plasmodesmata in plants); it allows for the passing of small molecules and is necessary for communication between cells in different tissues
integrin
a receptor protein built into the cell's membrane that aids fibronectin's connection to the cell from the extracellular matrix
food vacuole
a membranous sac formed by phagocytosis
plastid
one of a family of closely related plant organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts)
motor protein
A special protein that interacts with the cytoskeleton to give cells motility. Operates by binding to microtubules and then "walking" them past each other. These act as cars for cytoskeleton monorail system
'Cis' Golgi
The receiving end of the Golgi Apparatus
cortex
the outer cytoplasmic layer of a cell; has a semisolid consistency of a gel
cisternal maturation model
model that explains that Golgi's cisternae progress from the cis face to the trans face, carrying and modifying cargo as they move
light microscope (LM)
basic microscope, light goes through specimen then lens then eye
aminoacyl tRNA synthetases
the 64 different enzymes, each of which corresponds to a unique amino acid
plasmodesmata
an open channel in the cell wall of plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell
contractile vacuoles
vacuoles that pump excess water out of the cell to maintain the proper concentration of ions and molecules
extra cellular matrix (ECM)
secreted by small animals is composed primarily of glycoproteins.
colored
color that chromoplasts give
colorless
color that amyloplasts give
tubulin
a globular protein; constructs microtubules
cytology
the study of cell structure
stroma
fluid in chloroplasts, contains dna ribosomes and enzymes
collagen
A most abundant glycoprotein that forms strong fibers outside of cells
Active Transport
Contractile vacuole, receptor mediated endocytosis, exocytosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis, and sodium-potassium pump.
ultracentrifuge
most powerful kind of centrifuge (used in cell fractionation)
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum whose outer surface lacks ribosomes; functions in diverse metabolic processes (lipid synthesis, metabolism of carbs, detox of poisons, production of hormones, stores calcium ions)
plastids
chloroplast is one of several members of this generalized class of plant structures
Unique to Animal Cells
Lysosomes, Centrioles, and Flagella
translation
the process that occurs when protein synthesis ensues; going from RNA to a protein
nuclear envelope
organelle that encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm; composed of two phospholipid bilayer membranes; perforated by pore structures, each of which has continuous membrane surrounding it
desmosome
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that functions as an anchor
granum
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
nuclear matrix
a network of fibers that extends throughout the nuclear interior; adds extra support
vesicle
a sac made of membrane inside of cells
nuclear lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus
'Trans' Golgi
The shipping side of the Golgi Apparatus
leader sequence
a sequence of nucleotides on every messenger RNA region that merely regulates where to start the translation process
A cell's surface area must be _______ than it's volume.
larger
Microtubule
A hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells.
Cell Ultrastructure
A cell's anatomy as revealed under an electron microscope
scanning electron microscope
a microscope that is especially useful for the detailed study of the surface of a specimen; electron beams scan the surface of the sample, which is usually coated with a thin film of gold, allowing electrons on the surface to be deleted and translated into an image; result is a 3D topographic image
centriole
A pair of these is found in the centrosome in animal cells, composed of nine sets of triplet microtubules in a ring
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