Socio Cultural Anthropology Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
woman marries up
moving on all fours
marriage involving multiple spouses
upright locomotion on two feet
insiders' perceptions and categories, and their explanations for why they do what they do
archaeological evidence reveals indicates that warfare emerged during this era
Neolithic era
a research technique that involves gathering of verbal data through questions or guided conversation between at least two people
Cultural materialists tend to favor which kind of approach
culture shock
persistent feelings of uneasiness, loneliness, and anxiety that often occur when a person has shifted from one culture to a different one
a specialized method of data collection that focuses on historical sources, such as records in institutions. Also known as the anthropology of memory
The theoretical perspective that emphasizes links between mode of production and population dynamics
cultural materialism
a lifestyle association with residence in permanent villages, towns, and cities, generally, linked with the emergence of farming
an environment found at mid- latitudes, of tall, broad leaf evergreen trees, with annual rainfall of 400 centimeters and no dry season
literally, racial mixture; in Central and South America, indigenous people who are cut off from their Indian roots, or literate and successful indigenous people who retain some traditional cultural practices
the Japanese ideal of maintaining bodily intactness in life and death, ensuring rebirth
fright/ shock disease, a cultural specific syndrome found in Spain and Portugal and among Latino people wherever they live; symptoms include back pain, fatigue, weakness, and lack of appetite
cross- cultural labels for health problems
belief among chinese and southeast asian men that the penis has retracted into the body
A segmentary form of political organization is most associated with which mode of production?
the study of past human cultures through their material remains
The total number of indigenous people on the Anaman islands is
According to George Foster, the "image of limited good"is supposedly most associated with which mode of production?
Describe the primary category of exchange associated with foraging..
the gift
Describe the primary budget fund associated with the foraging mode of livelihood..
basic needs
generalized reciprocity
exchange involving the least conscious sense of interest in material gain or thought of what might be received in return
This city is considered the "Pittsburgh of Mexico" due to it's strong steel industry...
Monterrey, Mexico
cultural materialism
a theoretical perspective that takes material features of life, such as the environment, natural resources, and mode of production, as the bases for explaining social organization and ideologyMAJOR FIGURE: Marvin Harris
the formalized exchange of one thing for another according to the set standards of value
a generally agreed- upon standard for how people should behave, usually unwritten and learned unconsciously
According to Bronislaw Malinowski ____ promote social obligations and social harmony in the Trobriand Islands
social ties
friendship is
likely to be cultural universal, though we lack sufficient research to be sure
adoption is an example of kinship established through
labeling a particular issue or problem as medical and requiring medical treatment when, in fact, that problem is economic or politicalex. people of Bom Jesus in Pernambuco
organic solidarity
social bonding among groups with different abilities and resources
a group of people who consider themselves related through a form of kinship, such as descent, marriage, or sharing
Among indigenous Amazonian groups what is the punishment for a women who enters a man's house
gang rape
cultural relativism
the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and should not be judged by the standards of another
Describe the social organization of exchange that is associated with the foraging mode of livelihood...
small groups, face-to-face
"Third Genders"
some cultures permit the expression of varied forms of sexual orientation: for example, the berdache
Who is considered the founding figure of fieldwork?
Bronislaw Malinowski
a human- made mound resulting from the accumulation of successive generations of house construction, reconstruction, and trash
the transfer of goods and money from the bride's family to the newly married couple and to the groom's family
cultural constuctionism
a theory that explains human behavior and ideas mainly as shaped by learning
the transfer of cash and goods, often large amounts from the bride's family to the groom's family
Upper Paleolithic
the period of modern human occupation in Europe and Eurasia from 45,000- 40,000 years ago to 12,000 years ago, characterized by micolithic tools and prolific cave art and portable art
achieved position
a person's standing in society based on qualities that the person has gained through action
Humorous term for banditry mentioned in the textbook
adventure capital accumulation
bilineal descent is mainly associated with these modes of livelihood
foragers and industrial/informatics
civil society
the collection of interest groups that function outside the government to organize economic and other aspects of life
a time in the human life cycle that occurs universally and involves a set of biological markers and sexual maturation
What are clovis points?
Large bifacially flaked spear points, believed to have been either status items or used for sacred offerings.
In accordance with the foraging mode of livelihood, explain resource use
extensive and temporary
What are some forms of unbalanced exchange?
theft, exploitation, gambling
The mode of production of the Tiwi of Australia when the Europeans arrived was
absolute cultural relativism
whatever goes on within a particular culture cannot be questioned or changed by the outsiders as that would be ethnocentric
eat gum and saps of trees, have large lower incisors, and large intestines
Between the father and the mother, who is more likely to show affection to children among the aka people(central africa)?
the fathers
This animal is used as a form of currency in Malawi
This is the staple crop of the Malawi nation
Where does Barbara Jones teach?
Idaho State University in Pocatello
What is awas?
A common childhood illness among the Maya of Guatemala signified by lumps under the skin, marks on the skin, or albinism. Led to the tradition of Maya being extremely considerate toward pregnant women
secondary group
people who identify with each other on some basis but may never meet with one another personally
Marvin Harris's cultural relativist perspective attributes these factors to the violence of the Yanomami
protein scarcity and population dynamics
mode of consumption
the dominant pattern, in a culture, of using things up or spending resources in order to satisfy demands
Earliest New World Sites
-12, 500 years ago in South America-Oregon (Paisley Caves) existence in North America 12,300 years ago*Monte Verde, Chile most definite of the possible early sites
Describe market exchange in Indsutrial/ informatics societies
Geared toward making a profit, competing with other sellersSocial relations between seller and buyer rarely of importance (“depersonalized” exchange)
What are some factors in fertility decision making at the family level?
Children’s labor valueChildren’s value as old-age support for parentsInfant and child mortality ratesEconomic costs of children
What are "holistic" studies?
studies of small groups, such as indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, or Borneo. or studies of peoples' whole lives
In much of Africa, male youths who go through circumcision rituals together and then form social groups with each other called
age sets
what is the evolution of leadership according to life without chiefs
headman, big man, chief,
This item of clothing is important at Scottish weddings
wide brimmed hats
How do the Jamaican people maintain their friendship relationships
through cell phone use
female genital cutting
a term used for a range of genital cutting procedures, including the excision of pert or all of the clitoris, excision of part or all of the labia, and sometimes infibulation, the stitching together of the vaginal entry
Give an example of circumpolar- climate foragers?
Inuit People (adaptive technology and clothing)
What are the two major modes of consumption?
Minimalism (ju/'hoansi) and Consumerism (industrialsim/informatics)
In primatology, culture is defined as...
learned and shared behaviorsex. imo, the Japanese macaques (washing potatoes in water)
What are the two earliest hominin species?
sahelanthropus tchadensis (Chad) and Orrorin tugenensis(Kenya)
According to the textbook, one way the Tejano immigrant women in the US express dissatisfaction with their marriages is by
refusing to make tamales
Bangladesh has gained world renown since the later twentieth century for
its success in forming local microcredit groups through an organization called the Grameen Bank, which gives loans to poor people to help them start small businesses
Name the two families involved in a long standing feud that has become part of American legend
the Hatfields and McCoys
failed states are characterized by
breakdown in law in order, economic deterioration, and the collapse of service delivery
Local electoral politics in Burgundy, France, is
influenced by the importance of "family" in electoral success.
In pre Columbian Mexico, the central plaza of city states, was symbolically equivalent to
the center of the cosmos
medical pluralism refers to the
the co-existence of more than one medical system in a particular context
What is schistosomiasis?
a disease caused by the presence of a parasitic worm in the blood system, especially prevalent in sub- Saharan countries in Africa
Patrilocal residence for married couples is most associated with
a mode of production that involves immovable resources such as agricultural land.
In the Messy Cake of Culture the middle layer stands for...
people in groups, social organizations
One important factor affecting the foraging mode of production is
the practice of breast feeding for several years
What innovations are associated with the Uruk people of southern Mesopotamia?
The potter's wheel and the development of writing. They are also known for having the earliest, grandest, and most numerous buildings in Mesopotamia.
the transition to democracy is most difficult when
the change is from highly authoritarian socialist regimes
give an example of matrilineal descent
the navajo people of the southwest united states
This is an example of the positive effects letting prisoners practice their culture can have
native americans jailed in canada
Which of the following statements most accurately describes Roma?
As more Eastern European countries seek to enter the European Union, they are initiating programs to improve Roma living conditions and enacting laws to prevent discrimination.
In northern Thailand, carved wooden phalluses were intended to
protect the men from a ghost attack
An example of the concept of medicalization is
b. treating illnesses that are caused by poverty with pills instead of by improving people's economic status.
These observations near the shores of Lake Titicaca in highland Bolivia led to crop yield...
Rather than the "innovations" of the Spanish colonialists, the old raised- field system could increase the nation's food supply and produce organic material to fertilize the fields.
What are the problems with cash crops?
You cannot survive long by eating them, and have no fall back when they fail
In Eating Christmas in the Kalahari" What does Lee attribute to the Bushmen retaining a viable culture even after coming into contact with other societies?
An independence of spirit, in which they have maintained a skepticism of good intentions, and resent power.
Ilgnot manhood was defined by
the taking of a first head. feuds were structured around head- hunting as redress for an insult or offense
Clinical medical anthropology is the branch of medical anthropology that
seeks to make its knowledge useful to medical practitioners
Anthropologist Stuart Kirsch describes his role in Papua New Guinea as
all of the above (this includes a form of exchange based on reciprocity, frontline research, becoming a hero to the people he studied, and studying up)
The Tory Island word for "friend" is the same as the word for
"kin" (reflects the cultural context of the small population, all related through kinship)
What is the lost semen complex?
It takes forty days and forty drops of blood to make one drop of semen. Celibacy is required for true fitness because each orgasm meant the loss of a quantity of semen
Dogs are important to the social, psychological, and ecological facets of life in this community...
The Hare Indians of Colville Lake in Canada's Northwest Territories.
the yoruba women had the institution of the
iyalode, chief of women, who acted as the spokesperson to the "council of king makers"
The revenue of selling this item is an important part of the household income of the Kuna
molas, cloth with appliqued designs (made by Panama's indigenous Kuna women)
Claude Levi- Strauss used his observations of this tradition to explain the interpretivist approach to medical anthropology...
The Kuna Indians of Panama sang a song to help women through a difficult delivery
What is the goal of the South Baffin Island Place Name Project?
Collect and record Inuit place names and landscape knowledge as a means of preserving climatically important information, and hopefully protecting their cultural heritage and ways of making a living.
In China who has the highest rate of hookworm?
Rice cultivators who are exposed to night soil (human excrement used as fertilizer)
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