Sociology 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
eschew
avoid
Jane Addams
founded Hull House - settlement house - precursored community centers & rehabilitation homes. 1931 Nobel
Jane Addams
dd:HH
Erikson
whole life span
family scope
nuclear familyextended family
crime
Something that’s socially constructed, violation of a law, our idea of crime changes over time with change in deviance
triad
Three-member group.
 
A new person plays a unifying role in the triad.
The person may also play a mediating role.
Capitalists are interested in increasing worker productivity by:a. Using technology, especially machines that replace people.b.Threatening to close down or relocate the business.c.moving production to countries where people are wil to w
D.
SMSA
stands for standard metropolitan statistical area
Division of Labor
Specialized economic activity
genocide
the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group.
America’s first female foreign correspondent, whose work became theintellectual foundation of the American women’s movement
Margaret Fuller
learning new sets of values, behaviors, and attitudes that are different from those you previously held
resocialization
Industrial Revolution
3rd Revolution, machines replace animals
estates
feudalism, peasants work land leased to them in exchange for military protection
in sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.
validity
monogamy/polygamy
mono: marriage that unites two partners poly:marriage that unites one person with two or more spouses
Socialization
interacting with people and leaning the ways of society
conflict theorist
diverse groups with conflicting values; compete for scarce resources
Disaster
An event, generally unexpected that causes extensive harm to people and damage to property
capitalism
means of production are privately owned
Robert Merton
Macro. soc- large-scale phenomena, Micro. soc- small group phenomena, population vs sample
role conflict
emotional conflict arising when competing demands are made on an individual in the fulfillment of his or her multiple social roles.
Criminal justice system
system comprising institutions and processes responsible for enforcing criminal statutes
class conflict
tension associated with groups from different social classes
social psychologist who conducted the infamous experiment to examine the limits of people’s obedience to authority
Stanley Milgram
T/FJ. Robert Oppenheimer is known as the father of the atomic bomb and ultimately lost his security clearance as result of his views on atomic research
T
dependency theory
rich nations exploit poor ones.depend on american companies
proleterians
working people who sell their labor for wages
In 1965, sociologist Robin Williams identified 12 core values held by Americans. Later, three additional values (educaiton, religiosity, and romantic love) were added to this list by sociologist?
James Henslin
the optimum method of completing a task
efficiency
social movement
an organized activity that encourages or discourages social change
using one's body to communicate with others - shorthand ways to convey messages without using words
gestures
Technology
In its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools.
primary sector
involves the extraction of raw materials and natural resources from the environment
pastoral society
domesticates and herds animals as primary source of food
Ecosystem
The interaction of all organisms and their natural environment
looking-glass self
interactions shape a self concept. 1.present ourselves, 2. imagine how others see us, 3. develop as a result of our evaluations
the hidden curriculum
teaching values and beliefs, acceptable behaviors or a particular culture
Sociologica Imagination
making a connection between personal experiences and larger social influences/institutions
opinion leader
someone who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day-to-day personal contact and communication
periodic and non-periodic assemblies
Periodic- recurring assembly/meeting (soc class, chapter, white sox season tickets) Non- very infrequent, nontraditional, less formal (ANTM casting call, protest, Obama celebration)
sex ratio
the proportional distribution of the sexes in a population aggregate, expressed as the number of males per 100 females
Lived Experience
The body as a feeling, sensual, subjective, animates
body as object exterior, institutionalized
Natural Sciences
explain and predict events in natural environment
biology, geology, chemistry, physics
 
EX of institutional discrimination
IQ testing favors middle-class children
2.  entire criminal justice system--dominated by whites who find it difficult to understand poverty living
3.  hiring practices require several years of experience--only recently opened to minority groups
4.  many jobs often eliminate someone with felony on record or drug offense--reduces ppl of color
fad
folkway that alsts for a short time and enjoys acceptance amoung only a segment of the population
anticipatory socialization
socialization for a status that occurs before the person occupies the status
intragenerational mobility
Changes in social position within a person's adult life.
Religion
is a system of beliefs and practices based on some sacred or supernatural realm, that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a single moral community.
Culture
The ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life.
Ethnicity
group set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
Mean
A number calculated by adding a series of values and then dividing by the number of values.
class system
a stratification system that permits a significant amount of mobility between positions
Dependent variable
Factor that is changed by an independent variable (p.28)
victimless crime
a term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchance among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services
nonverbal communication
sends messages through the use of gestures, facial expression, and postures- connotation and meanings, a flaw in the tech age
narcotizing dysfunction
when the media provide such massive amounts of coverage that the audience becomes numb and fails to act on the info
organizational restructuring in the work place
collective decision making- democratic, minimal hierarchy, work teams
public opinion
expression of an attitude on matters of pubic policy that are communicated to decision makers, often used by lawmakers, the info is usually controlled in some way- dominant groups, power (conflict theorists)
sexual harassment
1. behavior in the workplace where career advancement is given in exchange for sexual favors, 2.lude comments or gestures, any form of inappropriate touching any type of display of pornographic material => creates a hostile environment
organic solidarity
social cohesiveness that is based on division of labor and interdependence and is characteristic of complex, industrial societies
Real Culture
values and norms that get carried out; high divorce rate
Sexism
the belief that one sex is by nature superior to the other
achieved status
a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects a personal ability and effort
Achieved (Ranked) Status
each caste ma be associated with economic or occupational niche and rules that determine the allocation of power, wealth, behavior, and places to liveo    Endogamous (in-marrying)
Charles Horton Cooley
"LOOKING-GLASS SELF" - sense of self derived E perceptions of others
Monogamy vs. polygamy
Mono - one partner

Poly - multiple partners
____ are more likely than any other racial group to marry outside their group.
Native Americans
2.1 million kids are living in adopted families. 18,000 foreign born
teenage pregnancy
traditional authority
ascribed status to a person because of tradition or because their family has been in power for years; they are in power because that’s the way it is
society
a number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independant of people outside, and they participate in a common culture
labeling theory
There are no deviant acts only deviant people- came out of research in high schoolers perceived as good kids can get away with more
interactionist research on gender
How gender roles affect gender interactions, conversations btw men and women (interruption), men interrupt women more than visa versa- regardless of situation
casual crowd
a collection of ppl who have little in common except that they may be viewing a common event such as looking through a department store window
What is a type of social control exerted on a person in terms of the norms values and beliefs that they adopt when socialized into a society?
internalized social controls
Tenets of Holistic Medicine
•You are responsible for the state of your own health.
•Health is a state of physical, mental, and social well-being, not simply the absence of disease.
•Mind and body are an interdependent unit; disease results when stress disrupts the balance of this unit.
Most disease is at least partly a result of your own behavior, and therefore within your control.
•Illness provides an opportunity to learn more about yourself.
•A physician is only a guide, not a miracle worker; it’s up to you.
problem with participant observation
going native = accept without critical analysis
in-group vs out-group
in- a group you feel membership in, out-a group you don't belong to
absolute and relative property
abs: cannot meet minimum standard of life rel: relative to standard of lving in society
Marx on class differences
Class is divided by the “haves” and “have nots,” access to certain key resources in society determines success
Hunting and Gathering Society
A society that depends on hunting and gathering; labor by sex
What does social solidarily mean?
Shared views/beliefs of a society that help bind society together
systems of stratification
1- slavery- who is free and who is not, a system of human bondage, slavery still exists in the US (trafficking), 2- Caste system- levels of strata w/in a hierarchy, rigidly fixed, inherited, legally and religiously enforced, 3-class- determined by economic standing, some mobility to change groups
(4) Steps to Closing a Call
Summarize, Develop and Review a Plan, Ask the Statistical Questions, Encourage the Caller to Call Back
what is punishment? wht are the different motivations for punishment?
punishment consists of attempts to extinguish or stop undesirable behavior. it frequently involves actions to deprive a person of things of value because of something ther person is believed to have done. the four main motives for punishment are retrivution deterrence rehavilitation and societyal protection. retrivution is the oldest motice and involves an attempt by society to exact suffering upon a criminal proportional to the suffering the criminal caused. deterrence seeks to punish people in order to discourage future criminal actions. rehabilitation involves the attempt to reform and resocilize people in an attempt to prevent their future engaagement in crime. societal protection involves the removal of a person from society in order to render them incapable of committing crimes for a period of time.
McIntosh's research of white privilege
Race is voluntary for whites, so they have hidden privileges- understand race only when they have to, socialized into white privilege, 1- whites are generally around other whites, 2- white ppl treated differently (ex- retail), 3- white standard norm is parenting (socializing), 4- whites don’t have the pressure of representing their race
What are the three phases of demographic transisiton?
1)high birth rates and death rates, with little population growth
2)declining death rates due largely to reductions in infant mortality, with little or no reduction in birth rates, resulting in high population growth
3)low birth rates and death rates, with little population growth
associated with privacy in the global village
1- identity theft, internet is the new wild west, 2- concerned for privacy in different sphere, 3- don’t have a good record system- electronic material obsolete, bad in 5 to 10 years, 3- censorship- regulate internet more and more, supposed to be unmediated medium
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Income
Salaries and wages
Patterns
Recurring characteristics or events
SEMIPERIPHERAL COUNTRIES
semi-industrialized, middle-income countries that extract profits from the more peripheral countries and in turn yield profits to core countries
precocious
advanced, premature, reaching maturity early
Racism
- (Wellman), culturally sanctioned beliefs that defend white advantages b/c of subordinate position of racial minorities
-(Cazenave and Madden), organized system of race based group privilege held together by race supremacy
-racist systems include racial bigotry
-has messages, institutional policies, practices, and beliefs and actions
 
modernization theory identifies which of the following as the greates barrier to economic development
tradition
church
a larger more bureaucratically organized group that is well integrated into the larger society and whose worship practices are more formalized
deindustrialization
workers replaced by technology, factory moved to cheaper town/country, capitalism benefits
Reception
The meaning drawn from cultural objects
Symbolic Culture
Another term for nonmaterial culture
poligomy 
men or women having multiple marriage partners. 
Groupthink
discenting opinion is ignored, EX. Colin Powell
Social Sciences
the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations
categories of jobs that involve similar activities at different work sites.
occupations
Value
Things you believe to be right
World Bank
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments
Rebels
cults, militia, etc

they make up their own means and their own goals and follow those instead of going by the societys accepted means and goals
Conflict theory(cont.)
Conflict theorists also focus on:

Industrialization and multinational corporations
Education important
Family functions handled by other institutions
Creates global inequality

Multinational corporations reduce a nation’s economic, social, and political independence
the self
not inherant, formed through interaction w/ other people, experiences w/in an environment
deviance
The behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group/society
anomalous
deviating from or inconsistent with the common order, form, or rule; irregular; abnormal:
social imagination
-an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society-C. Wright Mills
Prejudice
Opinions or attitudes held by members of one group towards another.
Service society→
Service society→ a concept related to the one of postindustrial society, it refers to a social order distinguished by the growth of service occupations at the expense of industrial jobs that produce material goods
Bureaucracy
US has some 12 million government employees, many paid through grants ans special fundings. -Not elected, but responsible for many decisions
According the the author, people are naturally afraid of what they don't know or understand.a. Trueb. False
B.
Technology
Knowlede and tools people use for practical purposes
John Snow
father of epidemiology, found source for cholera
formal groups
are large secondary groups established to attain a specific goal (such as a corportation, universities, and govt units). Formal groups may be 3 different kinds of groups such as normative groups, coercive groups, and utilitarian groups
Never New right
Nuclear idea type, critical family diversity, despairing of single parents
A neutral term, introduced by Walter Lippmann, referring to fixed, cognitive preconceptions that are necessary for understanding modern society. Eventually, these came to carry a negative connotation. Based on stigmatized beliefs, they facilitate and main
Stereotypes
defensive medicine
the practice of requiring extra diagnostic tests and medical procedures to protect the physician from liability
Door Ceremony
might seem chivalrous to some, demeaning to others
same action has individual interactions
micro influences macro structure
correspondance principle
schools promote values expected of individuals in a specific socio-economic class. ie- chicago= vocational, suburban=college prep
gatekeeping
when a relatively small number of people in the media industry control what material eventually reaches the audience
Dysfunctions of bureaucracies
Red Tape, Poor Communication. Alienation
mobility
Certain key resources help you move social classes, education is best way to move up in society (possibility)
accommodation
a process of mutual adaptation between persons or groups, usually achieved by eliminating or reducing hostility, as by compromise or arbitration
taboo
a rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment
Language
A system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought
depression
a long period of severe economic and social hardship, massive unemployment, and suffering
Media
Media presenting men and women the way we think they should be. We set high beauty standards for women but many can’t reach these goals.
Divine Right of Kings
-Power legitimized through divine intervention-power, wealth is ascribed
Qualitative Research Methods
methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form.
Specialization of different people or groups in different tasks
Division of Labor
The Power Elite
-leadership group for the corporate rich as a whole -dominant class- being able to impose ones class interests against the interests of others, so that those others have to respond
changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder
structural mobility
explanations of poverty
• Characteristics of poor people themselves, look at behaviors and decisions of poor people
Matriarchal Family
authorty is held by oldest female (usually mother)
Macro orientation
broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
life course approach
look at how different biological things in our life are socially marked. birth, death, etc
Who coined the phrase: Sociological Imagination?
C. Wright Mills
hate crime
Crime that is committed against a victim based on some physical or cultural characteristic
minority group
Subordinate group that has less power w/in society (women- 50% of the population, but are a minority b/c women have less power)
sociology
the science or study of the origin, development, organization, and functioning of human society; the science of the fundamental laws of social relations, institutions, etc.
the systematic study of human society and social interaction
Taylor: scientific management: FORD
the detailed study of industrial processes to break them down into simple operations that could be precisely timed and organized. Taylorism: as scientific management came to be called, was not merely an academic study. It was a system of production designed to maximize industrial output, and it had a wide spread effect not only on the organization of industrial production and terminology but on workplace politics as well. Fordism: the name given to designate the system of mass production tied to the cultivation of mass markets.
an approach researchers use when it is necessary to study thefeelings of the research subjects. Involves reasoning from the specific to the general
inductive reasoning
4 types of discrimination/prejudice
1. all weather liberal
2. fair-weather liberal (non-prejudiced discriminator)
3. fair-weather bigot (prejudiced, non-discriminator)
4. all weather bigot (prejudiced, discriminator)
Social Interaction
How people relate to one another and influence behaviors
What is an organization?
a group/network with an identifiable membership that exists to fulfill a goal.large, secondarycan be formal/informalindependent of individuals who join themtend to last over timecentral feature of society
primary groups
are comprised of theose who not only interact often, but who are extremely close through great awareness of other group members and who have strong emotional feeling that untie them with others in the group(such as a family)
Explanations of poverty: structural
look at factors beyond individuals control
polygamy, polygyny, polyandry
gamy- many spouses, gyny- man married to may women, andry- woman married to many men
deviance and technology
Less social control in the technology which encourages ppl to participate in deviant behavior (illegal downloading of music)
open vs. closed system
Open- class system of stratification where mobility happens, closed- system in which wherever you are born, you can never move
value added model
Looks at social conditions that lead to collective behavior, social conditions that lead to a willingness to act collectively
life chances
Weber said class is related to the life changes you have- opportunities you have to social resources, #1 life chance= education, most people don’t have this chance
Define Cultural Diffusion.
The spread of ideas from one culture to another.
FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE ON RACE
- the dominant majority benefits from the subordination of racial minorties- provides a moral justification for maintaining an unequal society that deprives a minority group of its rights and priviledgesex: southern whites justified slavery by believing that africans were physically and spiritually subhuman and devoid of souls- racists beliefs discourage the subordinate minority from attempting to question its lowly status- racial myths suggest that any major societal change would only bring greater poverty to the minority and lower the majority's standard of living.
Merton's Strain Theory
The extent and kind of deviance depend on whether a society provides the means to achieve cultural goals.
summarize modernization theroy and its shorcomings. with which major sociolgical perspective is it associated
modernization theory is associated with the functionalist perspective in sociology. modernization theory explains global inequality in terms of the cultural and technological differences between countries. it identifies four stages in the modernization process: the traditional stage,, the take-off stage, the technological maturity stage, and the high mass consupmption stage. in the first stage societies remain largely unchanged, but the pull of tradition and custom is gradually weakened by new technological discoveries that facilitate economic growth. the second stage is characterized by rapid economic growth accompanied by a growing belief in indibidualism competition and achievement. further technologival advancement as well as investment in new industries and further acceptance of the culture of high income nations characterizes the stage of technological maturity. during the final stage citizens begin enjoying a high standard of living. critics of this approach argue it is eurocentric because it claims that countries must adopt the core cultural components of high income countireis (such as the United states) in order to develop. Critics also charge that modernization theory arbitarily labels less developed countries as backwards.
inter vs. intra -gernational mobility
Inter- relative to your parents, intra- you experience w/in your lifetime (working class to upper middle class)
resource mobilization approach
The success of a social movement is dependent on how well the movement uses its available resources (funding, propaganda, campaigning, etc)
conflict perspective and gender
Gender roles are to hide power differential in men and women, women paid less, women work more (day job and home maker), women have less leisure time
Social movements and revolutions
Social movements are cause by a gap between rewards and expectations which theory is this from?
theories on the origin of prejudice and racism...

authoritarian personality
some personality types are more..submissive to authority figures, they do not question.

-fear of foreigners
-seeing issues as right or wrong. no ambiguity
How does Weber define power?
The ability to impose one’s will over another, some have more social than others- upper class, there is a varied degree of power that is used and not used
Why do women perfom Second Shift?
1. Beliefs about gender are slow to change2. Feminist Theory – Women doing the second shift reinforces and expresses gender inequality.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of live births to a given woman in her lifetime

In the U.S. the TFR is 2.0 – compared to 6.0 in Niger in 2005
What is Report Talk?
When men talk. Its goal is to control the conversation, style of speech is competitive and therefore interrupt more often. (Usually used by men)
(3) Steps to redirect callers who mistakenly dialed the parent helpline
Ask them what agency they were trying to reach; give them a description of what hotline they contacted; provide them with the correct number
how is gender a factor in social movement?
1- the structure tends to be gendered – 1960s- leaders were male, even though the favored equality (except for the women’s movement) – power reflects gender norm in society, 2- the role of emotion is not down played in social movement- gender dynamics lean toward females, but men use emotion as fuel also- having passion for an issue
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