Sociology and You Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Spencer
structural-functional
correlation
variables change together
stigma
characteristics that discredit people.
What does reliability mean?
Accuracy
folkways
Norms that lack moral significance
Research Methods
Surveys, Participant Observation, Secondary Analysis, Documents, Experiments, Unobstrusive Measures,
Bureaucracy
An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.
experiments
carefully designed and controlled attempts usually conducted in a laboratory to determine the effect of specific variables on a particualr dependent variable or on the behavior or attitudes of the experiments subjects
isolation
Feral children, language learned through socialization, large impact of institutions on development and behavior
Cultural universals
Common features found in society
Validity
Actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
wealth
most obvious dimension of social stratification because it is made up of the value of everything the person owns and money earned through salaries and wages
cultural integraton
the coherence and consistency typically found among elements of a single culture
Quebecois
The French-speaking people of the province of Quebec in Canada.
tracking
the grouping of students into different curricular programs, or tracks, based on an assessment of their academic abilities
Operationalization
Specify what is to be studied.
Functionalist Perspective
theoretical perspective that views society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system.
Feminist Perspective
Theoretical perspective that focuses on gender as the most importance source of conflict and inequality in social life.
Human Capital
Investment and skills and credentials
Robert Merton
Macro, soc- large-scale phenomena, Micro. soc- small group phenomena, population vs sample
fashion
A mass involvement that features acceptance by society and has historical continuity, fashion comes from well established line of culture (video games)
retribution
requital according to merits or deserts, esp. for evil.
realm
special field of something or someone, kingdom
the most common form of polygamy, involving the marriage of one man to two or more women
polygyny
Bureaucrazation
The process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes incresingly bureauratic.
Marxism→
Marxism→ a body of thought deriving from Marx’s ideas
Effects of language
-allows culture to exist-cumulative human experience (able to pass ideas and knowledge across and w/in generations)-allows individuals to move beyond individual experience-provides shared social past-allows complex shared behavior
Social Identity
how individuals define themselves in relationship to groups with which they affiliate (or disassociate from)
The richest 10% of the U.S. population holds more than ________ Of all the wealth.a.One-Tenthb.One-Fourthc.One-Thirdd.Two-Thirds
D.
an aggreement in which a corporation contracts with other firms to provide specialized components, products, or services to the larger corporation.
subcontracting
Feminist Scholarship
-woman's subordinations is inherent to capitalist societies
Max Weber
Identified the classes as Class (property), status (prestige), and party (power)
Operational Definition
Clear, thinking abstract concepts and putting them in a form that permits their measurement
spurious correlation
looks like a correlation between variables, but its false.
Church
A type of religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society
Ethnocentrism
Tendency to view norms/values of own culture as standard to judge other cultures
opinion leader
someone who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day-to-day personal contact and communication
neo luddites
people who resist corporations and spend money in local stores or banks
the hidden curriculum
teaching values and beliefs, acceptable behaviors or a particular culture
total institution
controls all aspects of an individual's life. - religion, jail, military
institutional discrimination
The denial of resources and opportunities and rights to an individual based on gender, race, class, etc. Women once denied from medical schools b/c of their gender
rhetorical
used for, belonging to, or concerned with mere style or effect.
self-concept
an image of yourself as having an identity separate from other people
Earlier theoretical perspectives are (succesful or unsuccessful) in explaining social life in contemporary societies.
unsuccessful. emerged after WWII
: the use of powerful statistical tools to help understand patterns in which the behaviors, attitudes, or traits under study can be translated into numerical values.Typically rely on deductive reasoning
quantitative methods
social change
the transformation of a culture and social institutions over time
Subculture
a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of norms, values different from the larger society
Agents of socialization
Family, Schools, Peer groups, media, work. Church/Religion
Cultural Relativism
The idea that something can be understood and judged only in relationship to the cultural context in which it appears
Value Free
The view that a sociologist personal values should not influence social research.
C.Wright Mills Wrote What?
That sociological imagination enables us to istinguish between personal troubles and public issues.
role expectation
socity's or a group's expectation of the manner in which a role ought to be performed
discouraged workers
people who have not actively sought work for 4 weeks, they are not counted as unemployed
Polygamy
Marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses
life course approach
look at how different biological things in our life are socially marked. birth, death, etc
organizational restructuring in the work place
collective decision making- democratic, minimal hierarchy, work teams
control theory
Our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society’s norms
functionalists on racial hostility
Racist beliefs provide justification for inequality, inequalities discourage minorities from questioning their status, racial myths discourage change
hate crime
a crime, usually violent, motivated by prejudice or intolerance toward a member of a gender, racial, religious, or social group.
stock in trade
the goods, tools, and other requisites of a profession
Who experiments with rhesus monkeys?
psychologists Harry and Margaret Harlow
What does cultural diversity consist of?

1. Subculture
2. Counterculture
3. Ethnocentrism
4. Cultural Relativism
 
Sociological imagination
how to imagine what the experience of something is for people with different ideals. Must break free of personal circumstances
Sutherland--Differential association-- SI
each person is exposed to both positive and negative definitions of actions

deviancy occurs when a person acquiring an excess of definitions favorable to crime

criminal definitions are learned in primary groups
Polygamous
Multiple spouses of one sex to one of the other sex.
Polygamous
NA
compare and contrast families in preindustiral and industrial societies
preindustrial families were characterized by extended family configurations that were patriarchal and practiced patrilineal descent. patriarchal families are those in which authority resides in the eldest male (usually the father) who holds power over other family members. patrilineal descent is the practice of tracing kinship and passing along inheritance through men. families in industrial societies are more likely to be nuclear families that are more egalitarian (those in which both partners share authority and power equally) and practice bilateral descent ( the practive of tracing kinship and passing along inheritance through both men and women) nuclear families are smaller than extended families in that they contain only one or two parents and their dependent children
cultural relativism
the belief that a culture must be understood on its own terms
teacher-expectancy effect
the students live up to the standards presented by teachers
credentialism
the trend in which a higher level of educationis required in order to secure a solid middle class job= socioeconomic inequality
feminist perspective and gender
Related to conflict, how institutions privilege 1 gender over the other
labeling theory
There are no deviant acts only deviant people- came out of research in high schoolers perceived as good kids can get away with more
deviance and technology
Less social control in the technology which encourages ppl to participate in deviant behavior (illegal downloading of music)
(6) Steps to Prank Calls
Establish a relationship; explain the purpose of the hotline; focus the caller on "here and now"; ask the statistical questions; gently let the caller know that if they don't want to talk with you, then we need to keep the line open for callers who do want to talk; contact your off-site supervisor if the caller won't hang up or if the prank callers are recurring
single-blind study
a study in which the subjects do not know the purpose of the study, but the experimenters do.
Feminization of poverty
The trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor.
___ is a lifelong condition that results from alcohol use during pregnancy and causes physical and mental disabilities.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
small group
has a size in which members can act simultaneously, size has relevance to group dynamic
human relationships approach
people motivated by a desire to help others
Durkheim (fuinctionalist) on deviance
Punishments in culture help to define acceptable behavior, if an action doesn’t lead to consequences/ punishments, then people will participate in deviant behavior
How does corporate welfare work?
i. MONEY STAYS AT THE TOP OF CORPORATION, SO IT DOESN’T BENEFIT US.1. In 1980, the average CEO was making about 42X more than avg worker.2. 1990 the average CEO was making about 96X more than avg worker3. 2005 the average CEO was making 411X more than avg worker.ii. PAYS TO OUTSOURCE!1. 2004, avg CEO was making $8 million/year income alone. The CEOs at the companies that were employing outside of the US were making $10-11 million.iii. THESE CEOS WILL ALSO MAKE THIS MONEY IN RETIREMENT.
describe and illustrate the difference between role strain and role conflict
Role strain involves tension between the different roles attached to a single status. for instance in the status of college professor there may be role strain between the roles of colleague and advisor if a coworker asks questions about a confidential conversation between the professor and a student. role conflict involves tension between the roles attached to two or more statuses. for instance, the role attached to the status of employee may conflict with the role attached to the status of mother. if role strain or role conflict becomes too acute, a person may disengage from one of the roles. this is termed role exit.
Status group
A group of ppl w/ the same amount of prestige and the same lifestyle- sororities and fraternities
The Recipe for Legitimation of a Social Order
o Have the current situation interpreted to hide its origins, and appear as existent since the beginning of time o Make sure people forget that men made and maintain this social order o Make them believe that their actions connect them to this fundamental order
Which of the following did Coontz argue is an incorrect myth about American families in the past?
More connected to extended families, married couples more likely to make it to their 40th anniversary, and families used to move more place to place less frequently
Effects of secondary -> tertiary shift
creation of dual labor market, due to educational requirements
factors that aid resistance to social change
1- Economic- people who resist social change if it is going to affect economic status, 2- cultural- resist social change due to culture they are in
How did the name change of the program after the welfare reform?
it went from the
A.F.D.C
Aid for Families Dependent Children
to the
T.A.N.F.
Temporary Assistance Needy Families
/ 88
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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