Sociology exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
physical/biological characteristics
Means of Production
The domestication of animals.
the law
Governmental social control
High-status occupation that requires specialized skills obtained through formal education
Capitalists profit from the difference between the cos of producing goods and what they can sell goods for on teh markets:T/F
utilitarian groups
large profit making companies
Social patterns characteristic of postindustrial societies
affirmative action
encouraging increased representation of women and minority group members
what is a subordinate group?
minorty group
Systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior
Status Symbols
items used to identify status
class system
social ranking based on economics
sociological research methods that are based on the goal of scientific objectivity and that focus on data that can be measured numerically.
quantitative research
family change
courtship/romantic love -> child rearing -> death of a spouse
totality of all learned behavior transfered from generation to another
comparative method
research technique that compares existing official statistics and historical records across groups to test a theory about some social phenomenon
Rigid conformity to time-honored ways of living
the self
not inherant, formed through interaction w/ other people, experiences w/in an environment
social control
Techniques and strategies for preventing human deviant behavior in society, too much social control is bad
in group
a narrow exclusive group; clique.
Labeling theory
theory that society creates deviance by identifying particular members as deviant
a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
the relationship of some variable to the effects it produces
T/FThe term "anomie" means rootless or normless
closed systems
people are ranked on ascribed characteristics, mobility isnt possible
people who own and operate factories abd other businesses in pursuit of profits
debt bondage
people with appearance differeces work in exchange for housing or food
concentrates on identifying the most effective punishment to prevent deivance; assumes people are rational decision makers
Dterrence theory
Malthusian Theory
warned that population growth would out pace food production because population growth is geometric and food production is arithmetic
during contacts with other groups people learn from one another, adapting some part of the other's way of life - groups are most open to a change in their technology or material culture
cultural diffusion
The standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
mixed economy
an economic system that combines elements of command economies (socialism) with elements of market economies (capitalism)
social rules that specify how people should behave
Openess to the latest trends and fashions, often expressed by imitating others
bilateral descent
trace lineage through both parents equally (hyphenated last name)
types of norms
formal- written, specify punishment, informal- generally understood, not precisely recorded (manners), mores- norms deemed necessary to the welfare of a society, Folkways- governs everyday life
4 subcultures among college students
collegiate=social, academic=enjoy class, vocational=goal is to get a job after college, non-conformist=don't like college, reject the college culture
stages of self
1. preparation (observing, learning symbols), 2. play (relationship, role playing, skills developled), 3. game (begin to understand the self, make personal connections, take roles)
class consciousness
An understanding of your shared oppression, shared oppression of a certain class of people, awareness of who owns what and who doesn’t- who has common interests
the ways of living, thinking, and acting in a human group, built up without conscious design but serving as compelling guides of conduct
Diversity Demographic
Audience and who appears on the shows
The Goal of Science
Explain why something happens
Make generalizations
Predict what will happen
the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others
folkway that lasts for a short time and enjoys widespread aceptance within society
agents of socialization
individuals or groups who transmit culture, such as parents and teachers
conflict perspective on race
Exploitation Theory: Racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs and supplies the dominant group with cheap laborBy forcing minorities to accept low wages, capitalists can restrict wages of all workersWorkers from the dominant group wanting higher wages can be replaced by minorities who must accept lower wages
The hidden curriculum
-Schools for poor working class students emphasize procedures and note memorization- Schools for middle class students sress the process involved in getting the right answer-Schools for affluent students focus on activities in which students express their own ides-schools for students form elite families work to develop critical thinking skills, applying abstract principle to problem slving.
Symbolic-interaction approach
A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.
Secondary group
impersonal group based on interest or activity.
A label used to devalue members of certain social groups.
a marriage that unites three or more people.
Lower class
The social class that includes people who do not own property, who frequently have no job, and who have no authority and usually no prestige.
a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of a larger society
Emile Durkheim
human interaction in a broad social context: 1.organizational soc, 2.criminology, 3. religious soc, Amonie
voluntary associations
membership is paid or voluntary, no compensation, more women, built around common interest
What is homophobia?
Fear of homosexuality, used to socialize one into a certain gender, keeps you in rigid gender roles (tomboy, etc)
the underclass
The long term poor, lack social resources needed to get out of poverty, believed it could be amended if we provided them w/ these social resources
social isolation
process in which persons or groups lose or do not have communication or cooperation with one another, often resulting in open conflict
1st Institution
Economy, the wealth and resources of a country or region, especially in terms of the production and consumption of good and services
(Acquired Immune Defiency Syndrome)
A disease that attacks the immune
system, leaving a person vulnerable
to ahost of deadly infections
Cultural Relativism
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards 
Balanced Reciprocity
An exchange of goods of nearly equal value with a clear obligation to return them within a specified time.
Relationship between friends or allies
Generally an on-going series of exchangesRefusal to receive or failure to reciprocate is taken as a withdrawal from the social relationship
virtual community
group of people who use computers to regularly communicate with one another in lieu of face-to-face interaction
Protestant Work Ethic (Weber)
-Helped the industrial revolution, had to earn money, but couldn’t flaunt it
The leading cause of mental retardation in children is ____.
Alcohol use during pregnancy
Sociological Imagination
when people don't look at a situation completely before forming an opinion.
the idea that people are not going to live forever and that death is inevitable
Lenski on technology
cultural info about how to use material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires
new social movements
Movements that don’t only work for material change, but also an identity shift- tolerance, going green, etc- changing lifestyles
feminist perspective and gender
Related to conflict, how institutions privilege 1 gender over the other
infant mortality rate
# of deaths amoung infants under one year of age per 1000 live births
What is a misdemenor?
a less serious crime punishable by imprisonment for less than a year.
A productive system based on service work and high technology refers to which economy.
the post industrial economy
Thomas Theorem
if it's defined as real, it has real consequences
ex: believe iraq has terrorists, we attack iraq
different cultures have different realities
human relationships approach
people motivated by a desire to help others
different systems of stratification
*slavery system: a system of human bondage-still exists *caste system: levels of heirarchy, rigid groups bron into a group; legally and religoiusly enforced *class system: determines by economic standing; you have a chance to change groups
functionalists on gender
Men and women’s roles act in balance of one another; women are becoming sole bread winners
5 to 6 times
On average, a worker can expect to change careers how many times?
What does non participant observation mean?
The participant doesnt know the researcher is there
How does Weber define power?
The ability to impose one’s will over another, some have more social than others- upper class, there is a varied degree of power that is used and not used
What is a second-party suicide call?
When the caller is calling in reference to someone else who is thinking about killing themselves
what is punishment? wht are the different motivations for punishment?
punishment consists of attempts to extinguish or stop undesirable behavior. it frequently involves actions to deprive a person of things of value because of something ther person is believed to have done. the four main motives for punishment are retrivution deterrence rehavilitation and societyal protection. retrivution is the oldest motice and involves an attempt by society to exact suffering upon a criminal proportional to the suffering the criminal caused. deterrence seeks to punish people in order to discourage future criminal actions. rehabilitation involves the attempt to reform and resocilize people in an attempt to prevent their future engaagement in crime. societal protection involves the removal of a person from society in order to render them incapable of committing crimes for a period of time.
McIntosh's research of white privilege
Race is voluntary for whites, so they have hidden privileges- understand race only when they have to, socialized into white privilege, 1- whites are generally around other whites, 2- white ppl treated differently (ex- retail), 3- white standard norm is parenting (socializing), 4- whites don’t have the pressure of representing their race
percent of Americans who are poor and can't attain American dream

they make half of median income
associated with privacy in the global village
1- identity theft, internet is the new wild west, 2- concerned for privacy in different sphere, 3- don’t have a good record system- electronic material obsolete, bad in 5 to 10 years, 3- censorship- regulate internet more and more, supposed to be unmediated medium
deviant behavior.
combining cultures, like Switzerland
Secondary Labor Market

large number of women and members of racial minorities, employees tend to be
unskilled and lack higher education, employment is insecure, earnings are low,
and fringe benefits are meager

manufacturing and service jobs more likely to be unionized

T/FAccording to Duderstadt, physical and financial capital is replacing intellectual capital in terms of generating strength, prosperity and well being
primary source of personal socialization
"without norms" when the equilibrium is upset and people tend to act out of the norm usually occurs in time of crisis
significance of freud
people internalize norms/values
folkways of central importance accepted without question and embodying the fundamental moral views of a group
"focus on the male"
approaching issue from male perspective
the systematic extermination of a religious or ethnic group
Functionalism (definition)

-->It says that different parts of society are interrelated just like the human body, so a change in one part of society will lead to changes in other parts as well.
--> Different parts of society are cooperating and usually makes society achieve equilibrium.
"Manifest functions vs Latent Function"

What is the current world population?
Lifestyle associated with different positions or groups in society (MAX WEBER)
Socioeconomic status
anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
the statistical study of human populations esp. patterns of birth, death and migration
Rhonda Lenton
writer in areas of gender, family violence, & health,
Rhonda Lenton
give up violence for Lenton
a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the US and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions; change from the past, should we change historic traditions?
industrial society
goods are produced through mechanization- corporations
pertaining to or concerned with quality or qualities.
formal sanctions
sanctions imposed by persons given special authority
T/F: more than 100,000 people under age 25 file personal bankruptcy a year
A document giving permission to a person or group to do something.
mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable
fourth estate
a term referring to the press
Postconventional stage
most don't reachReflect on abstract principles of right and wrong and judge behavior according to these principles. (only used boys in this experiment)
organizational environment
factors outside an organization that affect its operations
study of how people use commonsense understandings to make sense of everyday life
Subjected Approach
Also called the Self Placement Approach. People are asked where they believe they fit into the class hierarchy.
intergenerational mobility
social mobility experienced by family members from one generation to the next.
Positive correlation
statistical measure in which the independent and dependent variables change in the same direction
the reputation that a specific person has earned within an occupation
Karl Marx
communist manifesto- why there was separation in classes, means of production- resources necessary for survival
Harriet Martineu
Translated Comte's works, wrote the 1st book on soc methods, wome's rights, emancipation, religious tolerance
egalitarian family
mother and father make decisions together and contribute to the family
means of production are publicy owned, goal- meet population's needs, social health care, public schools
Sudden or disruptive even that over taxes a community’s resources so that outside aid is necessary (hurricane Katrina)
to grow together or into one body:
Hawthorne Effect
Change of behavior happens when people know they are being studied
Group Cohesion
The degree to which individual members of a group identify with each other and with the group as a whole.
He was noted for the Uncertainty Principle
Werner Heisenberg
role conflict
EX. work and finals at same time
Power in the hands of women lacks cultural legitimacy.T/F
Primary group
A small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships.
Social Stratification
structured ranking of groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society
The midpoint or number that divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values.
strain theory
the theory that people engage in deviance when they are unable to achieve socially approved goals through socially approved means
Intimate outsider
Closer to stepchildren, like a good friend, but not quite like a parent
a group of people who have similar level of economic resources
generalized other
children perceive the variety of roles w/in a society and relations btw people, recognize values and beliefs, internalization of social values
Social Science
studies the features of human society and behavior interaction, change, etc (soc, poli sci, psych)
types of crime
1- victimless- willing exchange of illegal goods, 2- professional- occupational, 3- organized- network institutions, 4- white collar- business activity, 5- transitional- occurs and crosses national borders
field research
research that takes place in a natural setting
the culture of the masses (the middle and working class), as opposed to “high culture”
popular culture
Albert Mehrabran
Concluded that the total impact of a message is 7% verbal(the words used) 38% vocal(how the words are said) 55% facial(the facial expression we use while saying)
functionalist perspective
each part of society (the family, the school, the eonomy, the state) performs certain functions for the society as a whole)
those who make the big decisions in U.S. society
power elite
This is 1/5 or 20% of some population. We use this measure when talking about the distribution of family income in the United States and the income group model of social class.
fertility rate
the average number of children born to each women
reference group
the group you use to compare yourself with, 1- enforce standards of behavior, 2-used for comparison
DuBois and the Conflict Perspective
Understanding power and inequality must be supported by understanding of race w/in a society.
interactionist research on gender
How gender roles affect gender interactions, conversations btw men and women (interruption), men interrupt women more than visa versa- regardless of situation
horizontal vs. vertical mobility
Horizontal- change in occupation but not a change in prestige, vertically- a change up/down in prestige and occupation
There is the "I" and the "me". The "I" is the self as the subject, or initiator of thoughts and actions. The "me" is the self as object, the part that the "I" and others observe, respond to, and assess. Ex: when people say helllo to you they are talking to "me" but your "I" is the one that evaluates the tone of "me's" reply
Sexual Harassment
85% of the time it is females who suffer from sexual harassment (had gestures, dirty jokes, pinching). Why? Males are often in a position of power in the workplace. Males are typically stronger than women.We sometimes see men’s aggressiveness or dirty joking as just being something that males do. It’s a guy thing and not a really big deal.
What does qualitative data mean?
Data which is represented in words
What is content analysis?
It's a standard methodology in the social sciences on the subject of communication content.
Post-Industrial RevolutionWhat is the best response in dealing with this new impact?
Getting some education and attempting to keep up the progress of technology.
when one does all or part of work from home, no traditional office setting, parents balance responsibilities
5 properties of a minority group
1- Physical or cultural differences/characteristics, 2- Must be treated unequally, 3- membership is not voluntary, 4- sense of solidarity among the group (is there collective consciousness?), 5- minority groups members tend to marry each other
prestige vs. esteem
p- looking at the amount of respect given to an occupation in society- connection to financial reward, E- the amount of respect someone has w/ in a certain occupation- famous doctors, lawyers, etc
What are the skills acquired by studying Sociology?
1.  Critical Thinking
2.  Data Analysis
3.  Diversity
Adam smith's famous idea?
French Idea?
markets operating in terms of "law of supply and demand" create interdependencies that bind people together through invisible hand of order
2)common culture maintain system of "moral sentiments enabling people to cooperate because had common world view and values
anticipatory socialization
one is trained for a future role to be played in society
what does/doesnt determine minority group status?
1.  minority status isnt based on the size of the group
2.  minorty/majority groups membership isn't necessarily mutually exclusive.
3. minority sttus my vary...
what is the difference between majority and minority groups
a minority group is not neccessarily one that is numerically smaller than other groups. sociologically speaking, a minority group is any group that is assigned an inferior status in society and possesses less than its proportionate share of social resources such as wealth status and power. the basic characteristic of a minority group is powerlessness. in contrast a majority group may be smaller in numbers but is a group that possesses more than its proportionate share of valuzble social resources
What should you do if a non-OEF/OIF vet calls the BRAIVE hotline?
Explain our referrals are specifically for OEF/OIF veterans; say:"I might not have the referrals for your situation; let me give you some numbers that would have those resources."; Refer them to their local VA and 2-1-1
Coontz also argues that teen problems and conflicts with adults should be linked to:
Role lessness – the lack of opportunities to meaningful task
What are the impacts of teenage pregnancy?
1. Men go to work and support2. less attention to education3. Decreases the life chances for the child4. Decreases life chances for the parents
Drug Enforcement:
*Coast Guard
*Boarder Patrol
*State and local police
*32 other agencies with some function
nonmaterial culture
abstract human creations
2 kinds of culture
orthodox belief or practice.
radically changing an inmate's personality by carefully controlling the environment
Dorothy E. Smith
feminist sociology pioneer
Opposed to a certain culture
Father of Sociology
use scientific method to study society
feel a part of the group
measuring exactly what you intend to measure
A condition of estrangement or dissociation from the surrounding society

Industrialized societies (definition)


 Characterized by organic solidarity.
(the idea that people are interdependent because they rely on each other economically).

social science that studies human society and behavior
where appropriate appearance is maintained
Front stage
strict norms that are collectively shared (killing is wrong)
Georg Simmel
German philosopher & sociologist; German sociology as independent discipline
Georg Simmel
Georg Simmel for German Sociology
relationship where two or more variable change together; poor children getting arrested
entering an institution and being asked to change behavior and adapt to new environments
a subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture
herbert spencer
British statesman: prime minister 1718–21.
who is the father of sociology?
Auguste Comte
Symbolic Interactionism
A theoretical perspective in which socity is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
Capacity to learn aparticular skill or acquire a particular body of knowledge
social movement
and organized activity that encourages or discourages social change
denial of oppurtunity and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice reasons
C. Wright Mills
an influential American Sociologist; his theories about the power elite set the stage for research on the American power structure ; synoymous with term "sociological imagination"
Karl Mannheim
social values; ideas s/b analyzed w/in social context; sociology of knowledge
sexual attraction to people of both sexes
an Englishwoman who published Society in America decades before either Durkheim or Weber was born?
Harriet Martineau
process through which one learns how to act according to the roles and expectations of a particular culture
life chances
the opportunity to acquire valuable social rewards and resources
Case study
a thorough, recorded investigation of a small group, incident, or community
Which sociologist proposed the ABC-X family crisis model?
Reuben Hill
usually 2 parent homes, reject public school system, special needs children, religion, higher test scores, BUT- social isolation possible
degradation ceremony
stripping of individualism and helps you conform to total institution. - may be humiliating
cultural transmission
Crime is learned through daily interactions, you grow up in media you are exposed to (determine your criminal behavior) , interactionist
a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others.
cultural diffusion
spread of cultural elements from one group to another
Robert Murton
Breaks society into parts; latent and manifest functions
Achieved Status
Status or social position based on one's accomplishments or activities.
wrote the dialogues on the Two Chief systems of the world
Enjoy higher status & pay because they filed and won lawsuit against several medical associations, among them AMA, AHA and AOA. AMA was found guilty of criminal conspiracy. Others settled out of court. Went from marginal to limited
It is not possible to be privileged without feeling privileged:T/F
Peer group
A social group whose members have interests, social patterns, and age in common.
Types of kinship
-Bilateral – both mom and dad
-Patrilineal – Dad
-Matrilineal – Mom
psychological institution
set of organized beliefs and rules that establish how a society will attempt to meet its basic needs, regulate all aspects of a persons life under a single authority.
a person who engages in deviance or possesses an attitude or condition considered or labeled deviant
causal relationship
two things are related because one causes the other
Joe refuses to listen to his wife Paulette and is particularly resistant to considering her complaints. Joe's behavior illustrates
nonverbal communication
sends messages through the use of gestures, facial expression, and postures- connotation and meanings, a flaw in the tech age
skills in the sociology major
Understanding of diversity, interpersonal skills, investigatory skills, problem solving, learning organizational structures, oral/written skills, international relations, government, media, community work
formal, meant to aid in the function of a formal organization. - division of labor, hierarchy, written rules, impersonal, employment=technical qualifications
minority group
Subordinate group that has less power w/in society (women- 50% of the population, but are a minority b/c women have less power)
latent function
any function of an institution or other social phenomenon that is unintentional and often unrecognized
diffusion [cultural lag]
the transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another. 
what is not an example of manufactured risk
storms, earthquakes
It is the theory that a continual struggle exists between all different aspects of a particular society. The struggle that occurs does not always involve physical violence; it can point to an underlying struggle for each group or individual within a society to maximize its own benefits. The theory was founded by Karl Marx, and later developed by theorists including Max Weber.
a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"
based on the cultivation of plants by the use of hand tools
horticultural societies
random sampling
process by which each member of a population of interest has the same chance of being selected for participation in the study
No Child Left Behind Act
Federal legislation requiring states to develop academic standards in reading, math, and science.
cultural universal
a common practice or belief found in every culture
teacher-expectancy effect
the students live up to the standards presented by teachers
a number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independant of people outside, and they participate in a common culture
patterns of intergroup relations
1- genocide- 1 majority group systematically kills minority group, 2- expulsion- major group gets rid of minorities (deport), 3- amalgamation- major and minor intermarry, creating a new group, 4- assimilation- minority adapts to major, 5- segregation- physical separation, 6- plurism- intergroup relations which force people to accept others
open vs. closed system
Open- class system of stratification where mobility happens, closed- system in which wherever you are born, you can never move
social order and social change
Auguste Comte, social statistics and dynamics hold a society together
Ascribed Status
A status which you are born with or assignedE.X: Poor, Rich
What does covertly mean?
People not knowing your doing the research
Performance expectations
how a member of a gender is expected to do; generally men have higher expectations therefor women have to work harder to prove themselves and get into mens positions
What is symbolic interactionism?
How society is experience.
It looks at the small things like gestures and language.
use of symbols-face to face interaction. "the kissing of the bride."
dysfunction in society
any occurence w/in a society that puts it off-balance, contributing to instability. creates jobs and the justice system
Marx on class differences
Class is divided by the “haves” and “have nots,” access to certain key resources in society determines success
Agents of Socialization:  Family
The family is the main agent of socialization during the phase of infancy and childhood (Primary socialization)
Mother, father, 2 siblings = family in our society
Child adopts their parent's outlook and behavior patterns
What is applied sociology?
Sociology done in studies in the field to get something done, people are paid to do it.
patrilineal vs matrilineal descent
pat- trace through father- last name , mat- trace through mother- religion
SOCIAL LEARNING theory of socialization
1. People respond to social stimuli in their environment2. Identity is created through the interaction of mental and social worlds3. Young Children learn the principles that shape the external world
how does world systems theory differ from dependency theory
world systems theory argues that global inequality is the result of the investment decisions of core or high income nations and not as the result of explitation. this theory conceives of a global hierarchy of nations based upon levels of industrialization, urbaization, and standards of living. core nations are dominant capitalist countries with a high level of urbanization and industrialization that exert disproportionate influence over world trade and economic agreements.semiperipheral nations are those that are less developed than core nations but more advanced than the peripheral nations. semiperipheral nations exploit the resouces and peoples of peripheral nations while they themselves are exploited by the core nations. peripheral nations have uneven patterns of urbanization and industrializattion and are dependent upon core nations for captial.
What is the Baker Act?
Outline of a bill of rights for the mentally ill; provides a system of legal due process for people under evaluation in mental health facilities and procedures for admitting patients voluntarily or involuntarily
What are some of the jobs found in the service split level?
(people-oriented) banking, hotels, health care.
According to the essay \"Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice,\" which of the following is true about the anger expressed by people of color?
A) It is usually legitimate.
B) It is draining and costly.
C) It signifies a time of hope that a relationship with another person can become more honest.
D) All of the above.
Answer D
Worker Organizations
shared cultural heritage
lower upper
3-4%new money (trump)gaudy
Freud development problems
sociopath, psychopath
Harriet Martineau
-1st women sociologist
-translated Comte from Fr to Engl
-doc evils of slavery, laws to protect fact workers, unionize right
deviance (stages of)
(p.181 ??)
-conformity; innovation; ritualism; retreatism; rebellion

Ideally, theories explain

(A) The way things are
Domestic Violence
1) Common couple violence
2)Patriarchal terrorism
Temporary pattern of behavior involving large numbers of people, which springs up independently of the culture and does not have a successor (tomagachi, furby)
Norms requiring or encouraging people to choose a partner from a social category other than their own.
Hidden Curriculum
School's transmission of cultural goals that are not openly acknowledged
cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
o that which people define as an ordinary element of human life o everything begins profane; things become sacred as people attach meaning to them
An arrangement whereby two people decide to live together on a longterm or permanent basis in an emotionally and/or sexually intimate relationship.
Values and beliefs passed from generation to generation.
a group's customary social arrangements
social order
the process whereby certain elements of a profession are eliminated
the process of employing home-based independent contractors
Functionalist Perspective
Understanding how society balances out, how different parts contribute to balance.
People use rumors to understand ambiguous situations and manage people’s uncertainly (closing a dorm) - A piece of info gathered informally used to understand an ambiguous situations
creature that walks upright on two feet
theory that examines how an individual’s interactions with his or her environment help people develop a sense of “self”
symbolic interactionism
institutional discrimination
denial of opportunities and equal rights to indiv. and groups that results from the normal operations of a society
2.  institutional forms of discrimination are committed collectively against a group
3.  may be unconcious
Life history (definition)

biographical account based on interviews and documents

Face-saving Behavior
techniques used to salvage a performance (interaction) that is going sour
Interactionist perspective
Focus on individuals interacting with one another in society
Qualitative Research
Research that is somewhat less structured yet focused on a question being asked; it is more interpretive and tends to have greater depth than quanitative research
The process by which individuals are incorporated into society and caused to internalize its codes, narratives, values, and symbols that already exist. Most often, this is a process that begins at birth and takes place first in the family.
Describe dramtugrical analysis
dramaturgical analysis was developed by Goffman and involves the study of everyday social interaction in theatrical terms. a status is likened to a part in a play, while a role serves as the script one is expected to follow. how one performs a role involves presentation of self, which consists of the manipulation of one's role performance intended to leave a specific impression on the audience. role performance caninvolve verbal as well as nonverbal communication. for example,interviewing for a new job involves an elaborate presentation of self
Secondary deviation
response to having been labeled: finding a new identity by way of deviant behavior
Deviant careers
Occupations that exist within a culture of deviance (drugs, prostitution, con artists, black artists, etc.)
Factors of health/illness:
Environmental pollution
Environment factors could lead to poorer health
Whites life expectancy – 77.7 years;
African American life expectancy 72.3 years
African American infant mortality rate twice as high as Whites
Ethnic minorities receive inferior health care
Folk medicine
total institution
controls all aspects of an individual's life. - religion, jail, military
Max Weber
"verstehen"- a form of social understanding, "ideal type"- model for understanding organizations, a founder of organizational soc and beauacracy
Temporary gathering of people in close proximity who share a common interest (crowds have predictable behavior)
primary deviance
violation of social norm which no inferences are made about a person's character
rites of passage
means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person's status
Wage Gap
The level of women's income relative to that of men.
understands deviance to be a process, not a categorical difference between the deviant and the non-deviant. The label depends on the groups’ relative amount of power
labeling theory
Functional Analysis
Society is composed of parts, each with a function that contributes to society's equilibrium
Estate Stratification System
the stratification system of medieval europe, consisting of three groups or estates: the nobility, clergy, and commoners
an economic and political system that combines private ownership of some of the means of production, governmental distribution of some essential goods and services, and free elections.
democratic socialism
power that is seen as justified aka legitimate power.
Cultural Universals
The patterned and recurrent aspects of life that appear in all known societies. Ex. The good is bad in some cultures and the desirable is undesirable in some cultures.
What is a centralized economy?
concentrates economic decision-making power with a small number of individuals or firms or more likely with the state.
A research strategy often used in large populations is called
Survey reserch
impression management
altering of presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy audiences
dominant ideology
a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interest
mechanical solidarity
social cohesiveness that is based on shared activities, beliefs, and experiences and is characteristic of simple traditional societies
cause and effect
change in one variable causes change in another
maximum security workplace
use of comps and surveillence to mointor workers
informal sanction
not clearly defined and can be applied by any member of a group - such as frowning at someone
big stories we tell in order to make sense if the world around us.
iron law of oligarchy
tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people
routine activities theory
Deviance or crimes happen when you have a particular set of circumstances conjoined come together, 1- motivated perpetrator, 2- environment conducive to carrying out crime
feminization of poverty
Most poor people are women and children (single parents household), 51% of single parent households are poor, childcare not cheap sexual harassment and job discrimination don’t help women get out of poverty
Low Income Countries
Nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor.
symbolic interaction approach to stratification
micro level; stratification is a factor that guides people's interaction in everyday life"unequal rewards are maybe fair"
What is the difference between physical orientation and romantic orientation?
Physical orientation is physical attraction and romantic orientation is emotional attraction.
Symbolic Interaction
looks at the meaning and how we attach them to different things
(is a simple displine)
3 Types
Univerc - means 1 variable
Bi Varic -  2 variables - Ex. Sex against something, it has 2 variables.
Multi Varic -  more then 2
What does non participant observation mean?
The participant doesnt know the researcher is there
The crude divorce rate is
the number of marriages per 1,000 population
Status group
A group of ppl w/ the same amount of prestige and the same lifestyle- sororities and fraternities
What are examples of each authority? - charismatic authority
Charismatic resides in individuals, and is considered to have magical properties. Very personalistic, and tends to be unstable in that it disappears or is absorbed into other authorities over time. EX----Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, Mother Theresa, Ghandi, Jesus, Obama
Measured by science, when did sociology appear on the human scene?
about the middle of the 1800s, when social observers began to use scientific methods to test their ideas
What are the three stages of "taking the role of others"?
1. Imitation (under 3 years old); 2. Play (3 - 6 years old); 3. Games
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