Sociology Exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Monotheism
Alternatives:
*Get together.
*Decriminalize marijuana.
bipedalism
walking on two feet
Which sociological perspective suggests the ways in which the family gratifies the needs of its members and contributes to the stability of society?
Functionalism
hyperbole
obvious and intentional exaggeration.
culture
the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
Religion
Influences values, what is right/wrongwhat your morals are.
Attitudes
Reactions-- often with emotional content-- based on beliefs, values and norms
Imitation Stage
1
language
peek a boo
paleontology
study of human evolution through analysis of fossils
survey
method where subjects respond to statements or questions
Goal displacement
Overzealous comformity to official regulations of a bureaucracy
Social Dynamics (definition)

study of social changes.
 
"Comte"

 
cultural universals
Features common to all societies
assessment of outcomes based on quantifiable rather than subjective criteria
calculability
postmodernism
ideas and beliefs practiced in postmodernism
Individualism
individualism sees social problems as reulting from flaws in individual character. --> factors outside of a persons control. didn't lose a job b/c they were lazy --> societal factors
Talcott Parsons
constructed system of classifying various characteristics of societies --> STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL THEORY
Ethnocentrism
judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture; language;
Auguste Comte
coined "sociology", wanted scientific studies, refers to soc as "the queen" and "social-priests"
Nonverbal communication
facial expression, gesture, posture. Culturally embedded.
karl marx
German economist, philosopher, and socialist.
mores
norms that have moral dimensions and that should be followed by members of the society
Micro-level Analysis
An examination of small-scale patterns of society
Significant others
specific people, such as parents, brothers, sisters, other relatives and friends, who have a direct influence on our socialization
ethnocentrim
the practice of judging all other cultures by one's own culture
closed system
allows little possibilty of individual social mobility
SCAPEGOAT
A DISADVANTAGED PERSON OR CATEGORY OF PEOPLE WHOM OTHERS BLAME FOR THEIR OWN PROBLEMS
Isolated child
An example is Isabelle.locked in attickdidn't talk, wasn't potty trained, afraid of people
gerontology
the study of aging and the elderly
one country making colonies out of other countries
colonialism
self
unique set of traits, behaviors and attitudes that distinguishes one person from the next; the active source and passive object of behavior
life chances
the opportunity to acquire valuable soical rewards and resources
Matching
process in which participants in an experiment are matched in pairs according to all factors thought to affect the relationship being investigated
The text points out that shared parenting is probably more satisfying for parents and effective for children when both parents use which parenting style?
Authorative
formal organization
formed in order to maximize efficiency
opinion leader
someone who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day-to-day personal contact and communication
total institution
controls all aspects of an individual's life. - religion, jail, military
periodic and non-periodic assemblies
Periodic- recurring assembly/meeting (soc class, chapter, white sox season tickets) Non- very infrequent, nontraditional, less formal (ANTM casting call, protest, Obama celebration)
race
any of the traditional divisions of humankind, the commonest being the Caucasian, Mongoloid, and Negro, characterized by supposedly distinctive and universal physical characteristics: no longer in technical use.
Cultural lag
parts of culture change while others stay the same (school year was 9 months for agricultural society, now in industrial time we do not need the 3 months off)
Society
A group of people who share culture and territory
Impression Management
Erving Goffman's term for our attempts to control how others perceive us, by changing our behavior to correspond to an ideal of what they will find most appealing.
The church adapted the notions of his and used them as the foundations for the church dogma
Artistotle
social stratification
some groups are valued more than othersdepends on noble birth and ownershipEX. men over women, able or disabled
The appearance of for-profit private hospitals
late nineteenth century
Of the list of Oscar best picture films from the last thirty years, how many have been centered around women:a.oneb.twoc.threed.four
C.
Gerontocracy
A form of social organization in which the elderly have the most wealth, power, and prestige.
Free-rider Problem
Free riders are actors who consume more than their fair share of a resource, or shoulder less than a fair share of the costs of its production. The free rider problem is the question of how to prevent free riding from taking place
Sociological Imagination
your behavior is determined by your past and personal experiences
Racial-ethnic intermarriage
less common for whites and african americans, more common for hispanics native americans, and Asians,
The text suggests six bases or sources of power. Which of the following is NOT one of these?
authoritative
minority group
Subordinate group that has less power w/in society (women- 50% of the population, but are a minority b/c women have less power)
groupthink
members feel pressured to conform to a prevailing view point and withhold questions, concerns, and criticisms
hate crime
Crime that is committed against a victim based on some physical or cultural characteristic
functionalists on racial hostility
Racist beliefs provide justification for inequality, inequalities discourage minorities from questioning their status, racial myths discourage change
reference group
a group with which an individual identifies and whose values the individual accepts as guiding principles
agricultural society
a society that uses plows and draft animals in growing food
cultural diversity 
refers to the wide range of cultural differences foudn between and within nations
defining a good life as one that comes with material prosperity represents a
value
GENDER IDEOLOGY
A SET OF IDEAS ABOUT WHAT CONSTITUTES APPROPRIATE MASCULINE AND FEMININE ROLES AND BEHAVIOR
sociological imagination
the ability to see the impact of social forces on individuals, especially their private lives (C. Wright Mills 1959)
What refers to the process by which our self develops thruogh internalizing others' reactions to us?
looking-glass self
ethnic (or racial) socialization
those components of socialization that transmit messages concerning the staus of one's ethnic (or racial) group in relation to others while facilitating a sense of identity based upon ethnicity (or race)
determinate sentencing
for a given offense, a judge must impose a sentence that is within the guidelines of the law
Lenski on technology
cultural info about how to use material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires
incest taboo
the idea that you shouldn't marry or have sex with family (found in most cultures)
horizontal vs. vertical mobility
Horizontal- change in occupation but not a change in prestige, vertically- a change up/down in prestige and occupation
4 dysfunctions of racism
1-society fails to use resources appropriately- only using part of talent and ideas, 2- discrimination aggravates social problems- make poverty worse, 3- society wasting resources, maintaining social segregation, 4- racism used to undercut good will btw nations, neg. impact on global scale
division of social status
Karl Marx, main reasons for actions, conflict is caused by unequal distribution of wealth
Replace verbal communication
Nodding head as in yes; shaking head as in no
What does intergration mean?
The process by which someone is assimilated (becomes part of) society
Outsider Within Perspective
The process of an outsider studying an institution/organization and comparing it to other institutions on the outside. It is ideal for an outsider because the outsider is not integrated within the institution and can provide an objective and fair comparison of the institution to other outside institutions.
what is structural functionalism?
Form follows function
"its that way bc it works that way"
One for all and all for one
Relationships between the parts of societies. how aspects of society are functional
Mead's Theory of Self
children view themselves as the center and develop the ability to be influenced by the people around them
racial vs ethnic group
Race= a social construction based on physical characteristics, Ethnicity= national origin, race is a social construction – not biological
What is the least common method of Sociological Research?
Experiment
 
People aware of experiment tend to change their behavior when under observation.
 
know the researcher tightly controls the environment.
George Murdock did what?
He came up with 60 cultural universals (aspects of culture that are shared by all people, such as symbols, shelter, food, and a belief system).
anticipatory socialization
one is trained for a future role to be played in society
Karl Marx's theory of class conflict
Human misery lay in class conflict, the exploration of workers by those who own the means of production. Social change was inevitable.
describe the properties of minority groups that distinguish them from the majority group
the main properties of minority groups include the following
. persons are treated unequally
. unfavorable treatment fosters a distinctive group identity based upon group memebers awareness of themselves as a minority group

.membership in minority groups is ascribed or inherited (usaully at birth) and is not a status voluntarily assumed
.minority groups possess cultural and or physical characteristics that are used to distinguish them from the dominant group.
.minority group members tend to practice in group marriage (endogamy)
(2) Statistical Questions on Parent Helpline
Can I ask you a question for statistical purposes? Were you satisfied with our service today?
Group
(to belong to a group is to yield to others the right to make certain decisions about our behavior)
consisits of people who regularly interact with one another

Share similar values, norms, and expectations

In Framework Essay 4, the phrase \"we make the road by walking\" refers in part to the idea that:
D) you need to be your own resource.
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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