Sociology Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
the guilty person
impulse to reduce discomfort
having distictive cultural characteristics
norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have great moral significant value to them
Comparative questions→
Comparative questions→ questions concerned with drawing comparisons between different human societies for the purpose of sociology theory or research
Culturally, defined rights and obligations attached to statuses that indicate the behavior expected of individuals holding them.
systematic explanation of the relationship among phenomena
Specialization of audiences:
Media are marketing themselves to particular audiences
For a radio station, it targets a specific group with their format, their music, their advertising:
Example: “Now you turn us on” billboard (August 2007) for local radio station FM 102
On the billboard was the back side of a young lady in her underwear holding the bridge of a guitar
This raised quite an uproar from the Rape & Abuse Crisis Center in Fargo

Audience behavior:
The audience members as opinion leaders intrigues the Interactionist
Opinion leader: someone who influences the opinions and decision of others through day-to-day personal contact and communication
Example: talk show host
Example: movie critic
provide children with equal status relationships
W.E.B DuBois
Race Relations
founder of the NAACP
1st African american to ear PhD from Harvard
system of stratification common in medieval Europe between the eleventh and sixteenth centuries, in Japan, and a few other regions, where there were a few merchants and “free men,” but most of the population consisted of peasants and serfs, who worked

Dimensions of Culture
1. Normative
2. Cognitive
3. Material
Sexual Orientation
How individuals experience sexual arousal and pleasure, gay or lesbian
What does communal economy mean?
Volutry work
when sociologists only gateher data from one gender but generalize about all people
objective and neutral on moral matters
The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next.
Charismatic Authority
Power legitimized by extraordinary personal abilities that inspire devotion and obedience
Nonverbal communication
facial expression, gesture, posture. Culturally embedded.
Auguste Comte
coined "sociology", wanted scientific studies, refers to soc as "the queen" and "social-priests"
the hierarchical or vertical division of society according to rank, caste, or class
the position an individual holds on the ladder of social stratification in a society.
George Herbert Mead
founder of symbolic interactionism, taught at Univ. of Chicago, students compiled lectures into Mind, Self, and Society
Industrial society
A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services.
preconventional level
children's perceptions are based on punishment and obedience
Caffeine is perhaps the most serious of what? and it is recommended that drinking coffeebe stopped if possible
have been raised to parallel status with MDs. Had to give up their initial opposition to drugs, offer a similar range of services as MDs.
solomn asch
line test--15 times to test conformtity
Sigmund Freud
"cathartic method" - recall of forgotten events; free association - make conscious of elements of unconscious; unconscious depends heavily on infantile sexuality & Oedipus complex; self emerges E early social interaction & early childhood experience = personality development impact
a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter of fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task
A state wherein society fails to exercise adequate regulation of the goals and desires of individual members.
sexual dichotomy
belief that two biological sex categories, male and female, are permanent, universal, exhaustive, and mutually exlusive
the allocation of status based upon personal ability credentials and achievement
Functionalist Theory
Looks at functions of social institutions to see how they keep society going.
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members.
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
Harriet Martineu
Translated Comte's works, wrote the 1st book on soc methods, wome's rights, emancipation, religious tolerance
total institution
controls all aspects of an individual's life. - religion, jail, military
institutional discrimination
The denial of resources and opportunities and rights to an individual based on gender, race, class, etc. Women once denied from medical schools b/c of their gender
to put in a certain class; classify.
real culture
actual behavior patterns of members of a group
content analysis
way of measuring by examining the cultural artifacts of what people write, say see and hear
significant others
people, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization
a term Auguste Comte's belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry.
vertical mobility
movement of individual in one social position to one of diff rankex: airline pilot to lawyerex: pilot to bank teller
Activity Theory
Elderly people who are busy and engaged, leading fulfilling and productive lives, can be functional for society.
Of the top 500 corporations in the United States, _______ are headed by women.a.2b.5c.15d.50
Functionalist Perspective
-macro level -society is composed of many parts and each part has its own function
Functions of Poverty
-do the dirty work
-benefit the affluent
-creates jobs for those who service the poor
-protect the economic usefulness of items unwated by others
-make examples out of
-reinforce the status of the non-poor
Functionalists view on the institution of education
teach the culture
Max Weber
identified the fice key components of a bureaucratic organization and believed burequcracy is important fo rcapitalist economonmies
judging all other cultures by ones own culture
Proscriptive/Prescriptive Norms
Proscriptive: what we should not do, ex. avoid casual sex;Prescriptive: what we should do, ex. practice safe sex;
Who coined the phrase: Sociological Imagination?
C. Wright Mills
types of crime
1- victimless- willing exchange of illegal goods, 2- professional- occupational, 3- organized- network institutions, 4- white collar- business activity, 5- transitional- occurs and crosses national borders
generalized other
children perceive the variety of roles w/in a society and relations btw people, recognize values and beliefs, internalization of social values
second shift
women had less leisure time because they had a job and a job at home while men had flexible chores to do besides their jobs
exploitation theory
Uses race to exploit another racial group (minority) ex- keep people of color in low paying jobs
organic solidarity
social cohesiveness that is based on division of labor and interdependence and is characteristic of complex, industrial societies
Dependent Variable
A Factor that is changed by an independent variable. (p. 28)
absolute deprivation
implies a fixed standard based on a minimum level of subsistence below which families should not be expected to exist
Looking Glass self
Seeing yourself as you think others see you
Women Talking...
Tend to use many more tag on questions.Use empty adjectives (really very, soo); use vague phrases (kind of sort of I guess.) These stylistic differences make women sound less assertive.
tracking in education
sorting students based on some real or perceived abilitesgeneral, college prep, honors
A factor that causes a change in another variable
independent variable
Robert Michels
Weberian student who used the iron law of oligarchy to explain bureaucracy rule by a small group.
life expectance
an estimate of the average lifetime of people born in a specific year
polygamy, polygyny, polyandry
gamy- many spouses, gyny- man married to may women, andry- woman married to many men
Charles Horton Cooley
study of small groups, the "looking glass self"-how you learn your social role
Lenski on technology
cultural info about how to use material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires
craze vs panic
Craze- a mass of involvement toward something that lasts for a long period of time (cabbage patch dolls, wii) Panic- a fearful arousal or a collective flight based on a generalized belief (disaster situations)
value added model
Looks at social conditions that lead to collective behavior, social conditions that lead to a willingness to act collectively
Social interactionist approach to the body
-Presentation of Self:
-rules and rituals
-visual and expressive, gestures, mannerisms
-appearance, dress and demeanor
-self is only convincing if there is proper body conduct
Latifundio System
a system in Latin America where a tiny portion of the whites owned most of the land and all others were laborers
Look in notes about all perspective views on deviance
now - Chapter 6
False Class Consciousness
The failure to recognize what is in one's best interest. Coined by Marx.
Micro vs. Macro levels
We can look both macroscopically and microscopically at the audience:

At the micro level we might consider how audience members respond to the media

At the macro level we look at broader societal issues
Example: the effect of Sesame Street or Baby Einstein on the learning capability of small children
merton's theory of deviance
Goals society sets up for people, looks specifically at individual groups
inter vs. intra -gernational mobility
Inter- relative to your parents, intra- you experience w/in your lifetime (working class to upper middle class)
feminist perspective on deviance
Law tends to favor men, domestic violence not punished for very long; women favored in custody battles
deviance is a common part of human existence, with positive as well as negative consequences for social stability. helps define the limits of proper behaivorex: children who see one parent scold the other for belching at dinnerex: driver who receives a speeding ticketex: cashier tho is fired for yelling at a customerex: student whi is penalized for handing in papers late
Question: Each year, newborn girls in India are killed by their mothers. What is/are behind this practice of female infanticide?

a) There is a belief that sacrificing a daughter guarantees a son in the next pregnancy
b) There is a view that sentencing a
e) All of the above
anticipatory socialization
one is trained for a future role to be played in society
 found that working- class parents are mainly concerned that their children stay out of trouble. For discipline, they tend to use physical punishment. Middle- class parents, in contrast, focus more on developing their children’s curiosity, self- expres
Sociologist Melvin Kohn ( 1959, 1963, 1976, 1977; Kohn et al. 1986)
What is Marx's view of social stratification?
the conflict view including the proletariat and the capitalists. workers accept the dominant ideology of the functional view of stratification.
use technology and info control.
How do they do this in a modern world?
What is the academic subculture?
social but like going to class and are into material, learn for sake of learning
What do functionalists say we need to look at to understand society?
Structure (how the parts of a society fit together to make the whole) and function (what each part does, how it contributes to society)
complete failure, disaster
show evidence of something
Prediction from a theory
Marvin Harris
anthropologist, studied the prohibition in India against killing cows
Correlation coefficients→
Correlation coefficients→ the measure of the degree of correlation between variable
Social Structure
patterned recurring social relationships
Manifest functions
recognized and intended consequences.
Mass Media Review
Perpetuates stereotypes
Desensitizes us to violence
Can ignore minority issues
Can distort the political process
Confers status on people
Raises the identity of the less fortunate
Promotes consumption
teaches children cultural values and attitudes that prepare them for adulthood
6 research methods
1. Survey
2. Participant Observation
3.Seconary Analysis
6.Unobtrusive Measures
According to Irene Frieze, female development is distinguished from male development by its focus on what?
Norms (definition)

rules that define appropriate
and inappropriate behavior.

Refers to the institutionalization of heterosexuality as the only socially legitimate sexual orientation
Who was Talcott Parsons?
He invented functionlism
Philip Zimbardo
Prison ExperimentFound that people will fall into the roles of a prison
use of sociological concepts and theories to reconstruct social arrangements
Power that people consider legitimate, as rightly exercised over them.
Marriage between people of different social categories
entering an institution and being asked to change behavior and adapt to new environments
Robert Merton
Macro. soc- large-scale phenomena, Micro. soc- small group phenomena, population vs sample
the subordination of the personal interests and prerogatives of an individual to the values and demands of the family
Status Symbols
visible rewards that show an individual's status in the society.
The scientific study of society and human behavior
significant others
those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self: these indviduals are extremely important in the socialization process.
Under which strategy does "ReZoring" fall?
relaxation experiences
Quasi practitioners
non-medical healers that use methods not subject to empirical verificationeg. Folk healers (curanderos), magical healers, faith healers, quacks
gender "inappropriate" careers
occupational segrgation is male careers female careers
Unique set of traits, behaviors, and attitudes that distinguishes one person from the next; the active source and passive object of behavior.
Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society
Occurs when people are not well integrated into society.
reflexive behavior
behavior in which the person initiating an action is the same as the person toward who the action is directed
intragenerational mobility
social mobility experienced within an indivdual's lifetime
anything that has a particular meaning recognized by the people who share a culture
regular, honors, ap, college prep vs socio-economic position, ap availability and gpa system, may set up kids for failure
bilateral descent
trace lineage through both parents equally (hyphenated last name)
Karl Marx
communist manifesto- why there was separation in classes, means of production- resources necessary for survival
Used to describe to labels that society gives to devalue members of certain groups, negative label
social welfare
social services provided by a government for its citizens.
informal organization
groups within a formal organization in which personal relationships are guided by norms, rituals, and sentiments that are not part of the formal organization
Evaluation Research
Assesses the effect of policies and programs on people in society
looking-glass self
Charles Horton Cooley's term for a self-image based on how we think others see us
control group
in an experiment, the group that contains the subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable.
gender differentiation has contributed to overall social stability- to function succesfuuly a family requires adults who specialize in particular roles.- can deprive society of the contributions of many talented people who feel confined by gender stereotyping
Social Aging
Consists of the norms, values, and roles that are culturally associated with a particular chronological age.
What is an achieved social status?
earn through effort.
Braithwaite: functionalist theory
Shaming Theory- shaming involves and expressions of disapproval designed to evoke remorse (two types)

1- disintergrated: shunned

2: reintergrated: person feels guilty but shows understanding
Dependency Theory
Poor and rich countries dependent on each other

Classifies the world into 3 types of countries

1)Core (Wealthy)
-Dependent on a small number of exports for sustaining the country (Ex. Oil)

2) Periphery (Poor)
-Get exploited by Wealthy countries

-have some limited industry; a bit more self-sufficient
the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
Amitai Etzioni
identified the three types of formal organizations on the basis of purpose of participation
a segment of our population that is set apart from our society
sapir-whorf hypothesis
concerning the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality, language is culturally determined
What is homophobia?
Fear of homosexuality, used to socialize one into a certain gender, keeps you in rigid gender roles (tomboy, etc)
sexual harassment
behavior in the workplace where career advancement is exchanged for sexual behavior; it includes lude comments/jestures, inapptopriate touching, display of pornography-creates a hostal environment
hate crime
Crime that is committed against a victim based on some physical or cultural characteristic
cultural relativity
a concept that cultural norms and values derive their meaning within a specific social context; cultural relativism
Systematic Random Sample
Begins w/a random starting pt.
-Has a more error
-done quickly
culture lag
a period of maladjustment when the non material culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions
Social Integration
Degree to which people feel united by shared values/social bonds --social cohesion
What is Rapport Talk?
to establish a relationship or connection with someone else, their style of speech tends to be cooperative, giving lots of positive feedback. Women do this more.
functions served by religion
integrates society: rituals, sense of solidaritylinks individuals to the larger societyguidelines for daily lifesense of meaning and purpose
a factor that is changed by an independent variable
dependent variable
social construction of reality
the process by which people's subjective definitions and interpretations of events shape their perception of reality
Claims Making
The process of trying to convince the public and public officials of importance of joining a social movement to address a particular issue.
the trend in which a higher level of educationis required in order to secure a solid middle class job= socioeconomic inequality
life chances
Weber said class is related to the life changes you have- opportunities you have to social resources, #1 life chance= education, most people don’t have this chance
new social movements
Movements that don’t only work for material change, but also an identity shift- tolerance, going green, etc- changing lifestyles
Themes of Femininity
1. Women as deviant/not the norm; less visible category, bot the default
2. Women as protected; women are weaker, not as competent and easily tricked
3. Ambivalence to success; costs of success for women are so much higher than they are for men, that women have some reservations about success
4. Emotion/nurturance;
5. Sexual double blind, hormones must be in check

What is Dubois known for?


Studied the structure of black communities.
Examined how African Americans were being affected by society.  He connected Social Analysis to Social Reform.
First Afr.Amer. to hearn doctorate at Harvard.
Concept of "Double Consciousness"
Quote: "The problem with the 20th Century is the problem of the color line"

Crime rate globally
Looking at crime globally the US has the highest crime rate of any MAJOR INDUSTRIALIZED nation
Cultural Hybridization
Something is taken on by a country but altered.

example: McDonalds in India
Feminist perspective (cont.)
Women are often show as shallow and overly interested in beauty
They are more likely to be shown in stages of undress
They are more likely to be show in danger or being physically victimized
Women are OBJECTIFIED more often than men – but men are objectified as well

How are women objectified in the media?
How are men objectified in the media?
conflict perspective on deviance
Deviance tends to support the interest of the wealthy, white collar crimes have less harsh punishment, where you go- how much you spend
5 properties of a minority group
1- Physical or cultural differences/characteristics, 2- Must be treated unequally, 3- membership is not voluntary, 4- sense of solidarity among the group (is there collective consciousness?), 5- minority groups members tend to marry each other
functionalist view of stratification
There are differences, but they are necessary- economic rewards act as a motivator in society, ex: brain surgeons make a lot of money to compensate for all their hard work
1. the presence of poor people means that societies dirty work will be done at a low cost2. poverty creates jobs for occupations that serve the poor ( case workers, welfare workers) and illeagal jobs ( drug dealers)3. identification and punishment of the poor as deviants upholds the social normas regarding hard work4. existence of poor people guarentees the higher status of the more affluent people. 5. poor often absorb the costs of social change
In Italy, is street prostitution legal? Are brothels legal? Is pimping legal?
Street prostitution is not illegal, brothels and pimping are illegal. A measure of outlawing street prostitution was approved by the Italian Cabinet in 2008.
what is a social movement?
A collective activity to bring about or resist a fundamental change in society- civil rights, women’s rights, etc, Bloomer- collective enterprise to establish a new order of life
Robert Michel’s Iron law of oligarchy
– in large organizations power falls into the hands of a few by default – rank and file defer to those who have time and energy to keep power
What is the working class?
Around 30% of the population with an income of around 25,000
1. Traditional- by long standing custom
2. Charismatic- authority that comes from a perons exceptional qualities
3. Rational- legal authority is legitimized by law.
What are the 3 foundational types of authority
How does gender role socialization occur?
From birth (blue v pink), even before you’re born (baby showers, etc)
no aspects of life go untouched, from marriage to politics
What aspects of life go untouched by social class?

Basically sociology denies the idea that individuals make
choices and does not think
individuals need be responsible for their actions

ability to see the impact of social forces on our personal lives is called

just beginning to exist
"shopkeeper" or the capitalist/owner stratum.
Models of Treatment:
*Disease/medical (sick, illness)
*Learning/free will (views addiction as an error
Nation-states→ particular types of states, characteristic of the modern world, in which governments have sovereign power within defined territorial areas, and populations are citizens who know themselves to be part of single nations. Nation0states are closely associated with the rise of nationalism although nationalist localities do not always conform to the boundaries of specific states. Nation-states developed as part of an emerging nation-state system, originating in Europe; in current times, they span the whole globe
Auguste Comte
philosopher; claimed term sociology
Systematic disinvestment in a nation’s manufacturing infrastructure.
workers replaced by technology, factory moved to cheaper town/country, capitalism benefits
ideal culture
values we profess to hold
asking people a series of questions
a system that institutionalized and legalized inferiority, mandating the segregation of different racial groups
a perspective that recognizes the contributions of diverse groups to our society and holds that no single culture is any better than all the rest.
abstract interpretations that can be used to explain a variety of situations
Robert J. Brym
political sociology, race/ethnic relations, soc/culture; Internet dating; Russian civil service recruitment & mobility; 2000 World Values Survey
Culture shock
the disorientation that people experiance when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken fo graneted assumptions about life.
Selection Effect
(not random) seeing a difference
cultural integration
close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
a country is economically dependent upon an industrialized nation (ex: Puerto Rico)
the act or practice of segregating.
(3) Steps to Caller Advocacy
Identify, Offer, Request
Semi-Peripheral Countries:
the world’s middle class, relatively affluent societies in the middle of global stratification also known as newly industrialized countries (p. 249)
people who have some-thing in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called a social group
Something used for or regarded as representing something else
strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture
group that rejects the values and norms of the larger society
the incidence of death in a population
An individual person’s change in racial or ethnic self-identification.
Psychological assimilation
Least allowed and practiced type of marriage.
Least allowed and practiced type of marriage.
Pull factor
the attractive values an immigrant considers after leaving home country.
-done in soc. activity
-isolate ind v. to measure effects on dep v.
1. physical abuse2. financial abuse3. emotional abuse
elder abuse
Rational-Legal Authority
Power legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations
usually 2 parent homes, reject public school system, special needs children, religion, higher test scores, BUT- social isolation possible
Temporary gathering of people in close proximity who share a common interest (crowds have predictable behavior)
social-constructionist approach
The assertion that social problems arise as people define conditions as undesirable and in need of change.
broad ideas about what is good or desirable shared by people in a society
political science
study of organization and operation of government
our belifs that the self and our feelings toward the self and its related characteristics
This individual was popular in Great Britain for her conspiracy theory the took as a point of departure the French Revolution
Nesta Webster
prescriptive norms
state what behavior is appropriate or acceptable
Gender Institutions 
Are the total pattern of gender relations, stereotypical expectations; interpersonal relationships, and the different placement of men and women in social, economic, and political hierarchies of institutions (ex. schools)
Refers to something that is based on careful and systematic observation
data in numerical form or can easily be converted to numbersuse of statistical tools- surveys, multiple choice questions
common practice or belief found in every culture
cultural universal
Definition: You no longer try to maintain a particular impression
Back Stage
perfect postive correlation
a relationship between two variables such that they both change together and in the same direction in all cases
A type of social organization in which people come together only on a basis of individual self interest
when two or more people oppose each other to achieve a goal only attainable by only one person.
voluntary associations
membership is paid or voluntary, no compensation, more women, built around common interest
minority group
subordinate group that has less POWER in society
relative deprivation approach
Individuals decide to mobilize for social change if they feel they are deprived of a right they should have- gay rights= people deprived of a right to marry
primary group
a group of individuals living in close, intimate, and personal relationship.
Gender Roles (sex roles)
attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex.
A formal group of people with one or more shared goals.
Conflict Theory (definition)

Society is all about class warfare between bourgeoisie "haves" and the proletariat "have nots".

the extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied
Socioeconomic status (SES)
A composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality.
What is sociology?
the study of society and social behavior
status of an out of work person who has actively looked for work in the past thirty days.
Alienation, for Marx, =
the experience of isolation resulting from powerlessness
U.S. Racial Caste System
racesare kept from marrying until 1967
5 Steps of doing Research
Science wont answer ? without going thru 5 steps.
State Problem
Design the Research
Collect the Data
Analyze the Date
Looking Glass Self (definition)

says that kids learn to judge themselves in terms of how they imagine others will react to them
(When they do something, if they receive positive reaction they will repeat behavior… they will recognize negative reaction and act accordingly)


ability to move up or down the social ladder (difference between a caste system and a class system)
social mobility
A type of modern economic system in which people and organizations invest capital in the production of goods and services to make a profit. Workers invest their labor and, in turn, receive wages. Owners, on the other hand, make a profit by keeping their c
Capitalist Economic System
rites of passage
events that mark the passage of a person's change in status. religious, educational, legal, etc
in-group vs out-group
in- a group you feel membership in, out-a group you don't belong to
functionalists on gender
Men and women’s roles act in balance of one another; women are becoming sole bread winners
[the] iron law of obligarchy
robert michels' term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite
This type of family is also known as the breadwinner/homemaker family. The emphasis is on marriage and personal satisfaction more than economic or childrearing concerns. It is based on rising level of individualism.
The Companionate Family
Noting Time Order means

you have to make sure that in real life that your independent variable happens before your dependent variable.

How are decisions made in Japanese corporations?
collective decision making where all employees take part
Effects of Group Size on Stability and Intimacy 
sociologist Georg SimmelHe noted the significance of group size. He used the term dyad for the smallest possible group, which consists of two people. Dyads, which include marriages, love affairs, and close friendships, show two distinct qualities. First, they are the most intense or intimate of human groups. Because only two people are involved, the interaction is focused on them. Second, dyads tend to be unstable. Because dyads require that both members participate and be committed, it takes just one member to lose interest for the dyad to collapse.
Tumin's Critique of Davis and Moore 3
Racism and sexism result in lost opportunities
what is the relationship between a sample and a population
a population is the group of people to whom the results of specified research are applicable. examples of populations include women, college students. and retired people. because populations tend to be very large, researchers use samples. a sample is a subgroup of the population from which the researcher will collect data. a representative sample is a subgroup of the population that accurately refelcts the composition of the population the distribution of aggregate attributes and the characteristivcs that are important for teh study. when a sample is representative of a larger population, the research results derived from the sample can be applied or generalized to the entire population
mainfest functions
outwardly stated
approach that emphasizes the contributions made by each part of society
Colonialism→ the process whereby Western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories
aging--conflict theory
oppressed by other groupsageism
L.F. Ward
father of american sociology
conflict key to human history
prohibition against a society's most important norms
people who respond to a survey
the planned, systematic destruction of a racial, political, or ethnic group
combination of sociologi al analysis and political reform. Generates a program of radical political change. lay more emphasis on conflict, divisions, and power.
S.D. Clark
Canadian social development: process of disorganization & reorganization on economic frontiers; emphasis: society re-establishes equilibrium post-economic change
unfair action or treatment towards somebody
Conventional Stage
Piaget's Formal Operational Stage
lose selfishness, learn to define right and wrong in terms of what pleases parents and cultural norms
means of production publicly owned, but there are no social classes
Wealth Definition
Cumulative advantage, assets vs. liabilities
unreasoning fear of or antipathy toward homosexuals and homosexuality.
What is AD/HD?
Childhood syndrome characterized by impulsiveness and short attention span and sometimes by hyperactivity that often leads to learning disabilities and various behavioral problems
Global Stratification:
a hierarchical system of countries that can be categorized according to wealth and mobility.
domestication revolution
 the first social revolution, based on the domestication of plants and animals, which led to pas-toral and horticultural societies
By socializing we learn how to interpret and respond to situations presented
Socialist Feminism
A more radical perspective that interprets the origins of women’s oppression in the system of capitalism, because women constitute a cheap supply of labor, they are exploited by capitalism, capitalism interacts with patriarchy to make women less powerful
Social Institutions
Education imports values, beliefs, and knowledge considered essential.
Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior (including the norms/rules guiding this behavior) is called:
social structure
Cause and Effect Relationships
cause=IV Effect=DVVariables are correlatedno evidence that a third variable has been overlooked, causing a suspicious correlationExperiment
Most PRACTICED type of marriage.
Most PRACTICED type of marriage.
Not necessarily allowed.
participant observation cont..

chagnon: man called "b"
studying the ycnomamo.
-they thought he was irritating
-finding names are troublesome--have unique name based on skill
-dont talk about dead ppl
-probs solved in public violence. 1st to run away loses.
1. rehabilitate them2. get even, retrobution3. deturance, keeping them from doing it again4. keep society safe
Social mobility
Routinization of Charisma
The transformation of charismatic authority into some combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority.
Certain key resources help you move social classes, education is best way to move up in society (possibility)
A political movement that seeks the social equality of women and men.
scientific method
the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experiment and formulation and testing of hypotheses
conflict theory
Marx, emphasizes the role of conflict, competition, and constant within society
the efforts of people to maintain the proper image and avoid public embarrassment
The notion of libido was put forth by
for a person to understand who they are and what is meaningful to them; consists of social identity and self identity
Personal Troubles
C.W. Mills theory: if "I" did something different, blame individual
The midpoint in a series of values that are arranged in numerical order
relationship between a variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other
Casual logic
What reflects our values, and has the potential to affect the norms?
a large social grouping of people who occupty and interact together in the same geographic area; are organized by and subject to a sommon political authority and dominant cultural expectations; and whose members share a sense of identity loyalty and purpose
Environmental Deficit
profound long-term harm to the natural environment caused by humanity's focus on short- term material affluence
Political revolution
The overthrow of one political system in order to establish another
belief that one sex is superior to another
control theory
Our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society’s norms
a type of group therapy that focuses on the special needs and concerns of a particular ethnic minority.
Define Culture.
Culture is all things that people have along with the things they do and what they think.
Graducation certificate, pay raises
What is a positive formal sanction?
Comparative question (Definition)
Relating one social context within a society to another or contrasting examples from different societies.
"Did this happen everywhere?"
Working consensus
which is not an agreement in any absolute sense, but a tentative agreement as to whose claims and definitions would be honored according to the different situation,for all subsequent actions and responses would be based upon these initial knowledges: Erving Goffman
Ascribed Status
A social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life.
the study of larger world and our societys place in it
global perspective
developmental socialization
the process by which people learn to be more competent in playing their currently assumed roles
Marx and the Conflict Perspective
Inequality results from class/economic divisions. rich vs poor. Rich control the means of production.
Indentured Service
Volunteer to be slave for set amount of time to repay deed; trips to America
feminization of poverty
Most poor people are women and children (single parents household), 51% of single parent households are poor, childcare not cheap sexual harassment and job discrimination don’t help women get out of poverty
interactionist research on gender
How gender roles affect gender interactions, conversations btw men and women (interruption), men interrupt women more than visa versa- regardless of situation
Control Variable
(type of variable)
2 types

Antecedent - comes first in time
Intervening - it comes btwn you IV & DV
Blumer's 4 feelings associated with race prejudice in a dominant group position vs. individual feelings
1. feeling superior
2. subordinate race is different/alien
3. feel entitled to areas of privilege/advantage
4. fear that subordinate race wants what dominant race has
social aggregate
a number of people who happen to be in one place but do not interact with one another
the me: what and who
the objective component that emerges as people communicate symbolically and learn to take the role of the other

role of language in culture
the foundation of culture, displays the priorities of culture, certain words tell what is important to a culture
Mead's Theory of Self
children view themselves as the center and develop the ability to be influenced by the people around them
instrumentality vs. expressiveness
Inst.- men’s roles act in balance of one another, exp.- women’s roles (nurturer and emotional care taker); we switch btw inst. And exp. Functions
What is groupthink?
A process by which the members of a group ignore ways of thinking and plans of action that go against the group consensus. They embarrass potential dissenters into conforming, and also lead to alternatives being ruled out before they are seriously considered. (When you are in a group struggling with a difficult decision and feel uneasy about voicing opposition to emerging consensus.
what is human cognition?describe Piaget's model of how human cognition develops.
human cognition refers to how people think. piaget believed that the capacity for human cognition undergoes four stages of development, beginning at birth. during the sensorimotor stage, children understand their world only through their five senses. during the preoperational stage, which begins at age wto, children begin to interpret the world around them using symbols and metnal images. the concrete operational stge begins at age seven. in this stage, children think interms of specific events and objects and perveive casual relationships and can look at the world from the viewpoints of ohters. during the formal operational stge which begins at age twelve the ability to think abstractly and critically develops
Zinn on creation of race/racism. Question of racism as natural
-intense need for labor in US colonies
-early 1600s africans considered impressive
-1619, blacks arrived. Religion was more important than color
-Blacks becoming lowest class was gradual
-Euro indentured servants replaced w/African slaves
-Africans were endless and ideal labor supply- Identifiable
-White was born
-Lower class Europeans went up in class(started identifying as white) while slavery increased
-whites afraid low class euros and blacks would join together
- slavery and blackness went together
-huge fear of blacks overthrowing whites
Describe "Margaret Mead - Cultural Theory".
1. Antithesis of evolution < no mention of bio - complete opposite>
2. How culture shapes
3. Continuity culture
-All we needed to know we learned in kindergarten
-What you do as a kid directly affects adult life (e.g. farmers)
4. Discontinuous culture
-We do a lot of things not preparing for adult culture
-Cannot survive on their own until 20's.
The analysis of social networks has become part of 
applied sociology. One of its most surprising applications was the capture of Saddam Hussein.
what is a master status?Is it achieved or ascribed
a master status is a social position that has exceptional importance in shaping a personal identity and self image. it can overshadow the other statuses a person may occupy. a master status can be ascribed such as being a woman or belonging to an ethnic or racial minority. a master status can also be achieved. occupation serves as a master status form any adults.
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