Sociology Final May 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pretext
an excuse
Spurious
false or misleading
Upper Class
The wealthiest Americans.
Family Stress Model
Robert Conger
culture
totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
Dramaturgical
all the worlds a stage
sex
the biological distinction between males and females
work as a social role
x
fad
Temporary pattern of behavior involving large numbers of people, which springs up independently of the culture and does not have a successor (tomagachi, furby)
sociology
the scientific study of social structure (human social behavior)
marriage between three or more people
polygamy
T/FThe functions of poverty were examined by Herbert Gans.
T
"ritualist"
rejects societal goals, but accepts hard work.ex: bureaucratic official who blindy applies rules and regulations without remembering the larger goals of an organization
T or F
Although sociologists share some disagreement among what constitutes unethical behavior, research ethics clearly forbids the falsification of results
T.
theory
set of logically related hypotheses that explains the relationship among various phenomena
period of maladjustment when nonmaterial cultuer is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions
cultuer lag
True or False: Expectant fathers sometimes develop symptoms similar to those of pregnant women.
True
role
behavior that follows a certain status
Herbert Spencer
Darwin's evolution applied to behavior, explained poverty, don't change status qou b/c people naturally evolve
communism
means of production publicly owned, but there are no social classes
rumor
People use rumors to understand ambiguous situations and manage people’s uncertainly (closing a dorm) - A piece of info gathered informally used to understand an ambiguous situations
familism
the subordination of the personal interests and prerogatives of an individual to the values and demands of the family
Religious economy
religions can be fruitfully understood as organizations in competition with each other for followers. There is something for just about everyone.
the rules a culture develops that define how people should act and the consequences of failure to act in the specified ways
norm
Proletariat
people who sell their productive labor for profit.
Cultural Relativism
The principle of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging or evaluating according to one's own culture
Organized Crime
criminal activities carried out by organizations established as businesses
White-Collar Crime
"Crimes committed by persons of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupations" (Sutherland and Cressey 1978, p. 44)
According to John Dallard, what is the source of prejudice?a.The authoritarian personalityb.Frustrationc.A split-labor marketd.Selective perception.
B.
conventional morality
definiting right and wrong according to the motive of the action being judged (10-16)Kohlberg
segregation
the physical and social seperation of categories of people
I
The acting self that exists in relation to the Me.
INSTITUTIONAL RACISM
racism pervades all of society's structures in a systematic manner
Gordon Laxer
principal invesitgator of a 5-year research project on Neo-liberal Globalism & its Challengers: Sustainability in the Semi-periphery
Gordon Laxer
Laxer
neo-Liberal
Punishment
Any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed.
The most frequently occurring datum in a data set is the _________
Mode
homeschooling
usually 2 parent homes, reject public school system, special needs children, religion, higher test scores, BUT- social isolation possible
gatekeeping
when a relatively small number of people in the media industry control what material eventually reaches the audience
degradation ceremony
stripping of individualism and helps you conform to total institution. - may be humiliating
institutional discrimination
The denial of resources and opportunities and rights to an individual based on gender, race, class, etc. Women once denied from medical schools b/c of their gender
primary
social values or ideals conceived as derived from the group and culturally defined as necessary to the welfare of the individual and society
Hypothesis
States how 2 or more variables are related
 
How & Variables are 2 key words
Core Countries:
the world’s upper class, the most industrialized and richest societies popularly known as industrialized or developed countries (p. 248)
Out group –
 

•those to which we don’t belong and

feel a sense of hostility towards
– exclusion may be painful or brutal or
competitive
Values →
Values → ideas held by individuals or groups about what I desirable, proper, good, and bad. What individuals value is strongly influenced by their cultures
Melting Pot
the idea that ethnic differences can be combined to create new patterns of behavior drawing on diverse cultural sources
Sociological Perspective
Look beyond commonly held beliefs to hidden meanings behind actions
generalized other
perspective of the larger society and its constituent values and attitudes
disposable society
The US values convenience and we consume more product than any other nation. many of these products come in disposable packaging which we throw away seconds later
Whose idea was, "Religion was the key factor in the rise of capitalism."
Max Weber
total institution
place where individuals are cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period and where together they lead an enclosed, formally administered life
What were Malthus's two preventative checks?
abstinence
delayed marriage age
Social Structures
Made up of institutions and norms, shape behavior of individuals
generalized other
children perceive the variety of roles w/in a society and relations btw people, recognize values and beliefs, internalization of social values
organizational restructuring in the work place
collective decision making- democratic, minimal hierarchy, work teams
nonverbal communication
sends messages through the use of gestures, facial expression, and postures- connotation and meanings, a flaw in the tech age
public opinion
expression of an attitude on matters of pubic policy that are communicated to decision makers, often used by lawmakers, the info is usually controlled in some way- dominant groups, power (conflict theorists)
What is homophobia?
Fear of homosexuality, used to socialize one into a certain gender, keeps you in rigid gender roles (tomboy, etc)
latent function
any function of an institution or other social phenomenon that is unintentional and often unrecognized
Intergenerational mobility
refers to a change that occurs between generations when grown-up children end up on a different rung of the social class ladder from their parents.
small group 
a group small enough for everyone to inter-act directly with all the other members
being late for class, wearing jeans to a wedding, being in an exclusive club and speaking out against a traditional policy of excluding women.....are examples of______
deviant behaivor
Two approaches to Micro Sociology
Symbolic Interaction Theory Exchange Theory
absolute monarchy
monarchy in which the ruler makes all the decisions and is opposed by no one (Saudi Arabia and Nepal)
Social role
A set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status.
define new religious movement:
- almost no organization
- tiny
- twisted and intertwined beliefs
- often called cults
significant others
an individual who is most important in development of the self, such as a parent, friend, or teacher
What is Sociology?
the scientific study of human behavior and human groups. - interactions, institutions, operation
vested interests
groups who have something to lose with the advent of social change, held y groups who will suffer due to social change
Mead's research of gender
Central to gender studies, gender isn’t biological, A-tribe= same U.S. gender roles, M-tribe= men and women both aggressive, less labor division, T-tribe= men are passive and vain (shop and curling hair, etc)
occupational fields of sociology majors
Healthcare, social services, business, legal, government, media, education, international relations, community work
power elite
those who make the big decisions in US society
Social Interaction
what people do when they are in one another's presence
Social Conflict Approach on Sexuality
-macro level-sexuality is linked to social inequality-men dominate women by devaluing them as sexual objects
Parsons, who is a ___________ notes that there are 4 parts to the sick role, they are____________.
dramaturgist
1. acknowledge the label
2. try to get better
3. be excused from normal acts
4. comply with medical authority
conflict perspective on deviance
Deviance tends to support the interest of the wealthy, white collar crimes have less harsh punishment, where you go- how much you spend
Manifest and Latent function
M= the intended goal of an organization/society, L=the result that happens w/o intention
resource mobilization approach
The success of a social movement is dependent on how well the movement uses its available resources (funding, propaganda, campaigning, etc)
paradigm
a set of forms all of which contain a particular element, esp. the set of all inflected forms based on a single stem or theme.
Functions of the family
1. To ensure that new babies actually survive to become adult members of society.2. To regulate sexual activity.3. To ensure that children are satisfactorily socialized into the norms and values of society.4. To provide economic support for other family members.5. To satisfy our emotional needs for love and security.6. To provide us with a sense of place and position in our society.
Self-fulfilling prophesy of Symbolic Interaction
biography affects how people see you which affect your concept of self which affects how others see you…
How does Weber define power?
The ability to impose one’s will over another, some have more social than others- upper class, there is a varied degree of power that is used and not used
What does functionlism mean?
How the jobs of society make it a society
What is the social construction of gender?
The expectation and roles society builds around biological sex
What kind of punishment do Americans favor?
Americans tend to favor more harsh punishments instead of rehabilitation
How do many people in the U.S. view the poor?
SOCIAL DARWINISM AND INDIVIDUALISM: If you’re not making it, it’s your own fault, REFUSAL TO WORK, and WELFARE DEPENDENCY, and RACE ETHNICITY.
What are the three types of suicide types?
Egoistic- i'm so smart no one else is important as i am
Altruistic- i love my country
Anomic- i have no hope
/ 88
Term:
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