sociology test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Neil Guppy
social inEquality, sustainability & Environ, & Education
Neil Guppy
reject conventional ideas/behaviors
KKK, Al Quaeda
dysfunctions of religion
warjustify persecution
the law
Governmental social control
routine, usually unspoken conventions of behavior
Unfortunately if one takes responsibility for racism and sexism it involves guilt and blame:T/F
used to describe certain relationships
quantitative research
numerical form of data
a simplified and standardized conception or image invested with special meaning and held in common by members of a group:
literally, the understanding of many cultures; a way to understand the very different ways that different groups of people approach issues, construct identities, and create institutions that express their needs
psychiatrist and founder of psychoanalysis; believed the self consisted of three elements (id, ego, and superego) and that children go through three stages (oral, anal, and Oedipal) to reach healthy adulthood
Sigmund Freud
Generalized other
norms,values, expectations of others significant step in the development of self
ability to exercise will over others
the sociological approach that attempts to explain social life in modern societies that are characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications.
postmodern perspectives
urban sectors
distinctive districts sometimes form wedge shaped sectors
interrelated ideas the attempt to explain a phenomenon. Not a fact
system interdependent parts; all must fulfill certain functions
The social institution in which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values
Nonverbal communication
facial expression, gesture, posture. Culturally embedded.
the rights, obligations, and expected behavior patterns associated with a particular social status.
horticultural society
a society that survives primarily through the growing of plants
Auguste Comte
founder of sociology. Studied the bases of the social order. Firm believer in scientific method being used for sociology but never used it himself.
an approach researchers use when logically proceeding from onedemonstrable fact to the next and deducing results
deductive reasoning
Which individual formulated a conspiracy theory using the "great pirates" as his point of departure
R. Buckminister Fuller
explanations of poverty
individual- blame the victimcultural- parents pass on to kidsstrucural- feminist and functionalist (conflict)
Ascribed Status
based on birth, permanent membership to a specific group with no possibility of individual social mobility (closed system)
According to Robert Merton, the intended beneficial consequences of peoples actions that hep a social system to be more efficient are?
manifest functions
process of learning new values, norms, and expectations when an adult leaves an old role and enters a new one
relative deprivation
a perceived disadvantage arising some comparison
Who pointed out, "a group's material culture usually changes first, with the nonmaterial culture lagging behind."
William Ogburn
Cultural lag
William Ogburns term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations.
secondary sector
involves the transformation of raw materials and natural resources into finished goods
material culture
tangible aspect of culture, includes every conceivable kind of physical object produced by humans; reflect the nature of the society in which they were made
The social institution that focuses on fighting disease and improving health
scientific management approach
people motivated by economic needs
culture lag
a period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions
Natural Science
Studies the physical features of nature and how they interact with one another. (bio, chem, physics)
second shift
Arlie Hoffschild- among dual career couples, women had 15 fewer leisure hours a week than men due to housework and caring for children
cultural transmission
Crime is learned through daily interactions, you grow up in media you are exposed to (determine your criminal behavior) , interactionist
social heritage
the entire inherited pattern of cultural activity present in a society
Trashy Talk Shows
-Focus on interpersonal conflict and on-ari confrontation
-Maury, Montel, Jerry Springer
-Topics: baby daddy, STDs, cheating, sex, gender, drugs
-Audience is younger, college, more diverse, middle and working class, racial diversity
Ppl. who share a culture and a territory
discrimination today
1.  widespread in the US
2. sometimes results from prejudices held by individuals, found in institutional discriminatoin and the presence of the informal economy
3.  quantifying discrimination is problematiic
4.  distribution of income as a measure of discrimination
collective behavior
ways of thinking feeling, and acting that develop amoung a large number of ppl and that are relatively spontaneous and unstrctured
operational definiton
a description of procedures used to measure a concept in sufficient detail so that someone else could perform the same procedure and get a similar result
vertical mobility
Movement from one position to another of a different rank
Manifest functions of education
-socialization of the young-teaching of academic skills
Specific ideas that people hold to be true.
Primary Group
group characterized by intimate , long term face to face interaction
Life course approach
A research orientation in which sociologists and other social scientists look closely at the social factors that influence people throughout their lives, from birth to death.
matrilineal descent
the practice of tracking kinship and passing along inheritance through women
Open-ended questions
questions a person must answer in his/her own words
degradation ceremony
an aspect of the socialization process within some total insitutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals
Goffman's Dramaturgical Approach
people's actions embedded with their roles in society.
Sociological imaginationw as coined by who?
C. Wright Mills
the worker is not part of the produciton process, no control over the work environment
the underclass
The long term poor, lack social resources needed to get out of poverty, believed it could be amended if we provided them w/ these social resources
control theory
Our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society’s norms
Ideal culture
values and norms we strive to achieve; marriage lasts forever
Wage Gap
the level of income relative to that of men
role strain
tension among the coles connected to a single status
Lester Frank Ward
paleontologist & 1 of 1st American sociologists; TELESIS: planned progress of education & intellect direct social evolution
info they want us to see only (their dominant ideaology)
In the U.S. births to older women have _____.
increases almost every yearmales - 75 yearsfemales - 80 years
infant mortality rate
group marriage
the process of a number of couples getting married together alongside one another
Goffman's presentatin of self
daily activities involve attempts to convey impressions of who we are, creates distinctive appearances and satisfies particular audiences
deviance and technology
Less social control in the technology which encourages ppl to participate in deviant behavior (illegal downloading of music)
The idea that one norm should apply to all groups, white privilege- all groups conform to white standard
4 dysfunctions of racism
1-society fails to use resources appropriately- only using part of talent and ideas, 2- discrimination aggravates social problems- make poverty worse, 3- society wasting resources, maintaining social segregation, 4- racism used to undercut good will btw nations, neg. impact on global scale
any member of a small class of words distinguished in many languages by their function as connectors between words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, as and, because, but, however.
multiple nuclei theory
does not have a center but has several, has little "boxes"
What is social stratification?
the structure of social inequality in a society, such as wealth status and power.
Why is prejudice unfair?
because all people in some category are described as the same, based on little or no direct evidence.
independent and dependent variables of Stanford Prison experiment
Prison setting - independent
violence - dependent
Prison setting causes change, violence is changed by prison setting
small group
has a size in which members can act simultaneously, size has relevance to group dynamic
Durkheim's explanation of deviance
punishments in a culture help to define acceptable vs. unacceptable behavior ex: DUI: made it much more expensive ticket -> decrease in the number of DUI's
conflict perspective and gender
Gender roles are to hide power differential in men and women, women paid less, women work more (day job and home maker), women have less leisure time
Agricultural Revolution/ "Dawn of Civilization"
Created an unseen surplus of crops; created more time for leisure not farming; Inventions: wheel, writing, and numbers
What does elaborated code mean?
Spelling out the many meanings which are left un spoken by the resticted code
anticipatory socialization
one is trained for a future role to be played in society
Example Statements to Engage the Caller
Did something happen today that made you want to call?You said you are looking for (___), it sounds like you're feeling (___).You sound (____).How has this situation been for you? How is it affecting you today?
how is theism diffenent from transcendent idealism
theism refers to religions such as christianity that believe in one or more gods. not all religions however believe in a god or gods. transcendent idealism refers to religions and systems of belief that do not posit the existence of one or more gods; instead, they emphasize the existence of sacred principles of conduct and belief such as compassion and truth.
factors that impact mobility in the US
1- occupational mobility- ppl strive to do better than parents, 2- education- more educated = more class increase, 3- race/ethnicity, 4- gender
What did Hirschi argue about social deviance?
that people have an inner control system
issues with privacy in the global village
1) identity theft 2) no good record system 3) censorship
(A) Experiment

What is the dependent
variable in the hypothesis that states “helping behavior declines as population
density increases.” 

respect or regard
Apartheid schools
all black schools
socially constructed concept, biological status, legal status, chosen status= to make up a family
Actual behavior toward another group.
redrawing districts bizarrely to create politically advantageous outcomes
subcultuer that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger cultuer
Integrating students with disabilities or special needs into the overall education program
Generalizations that are unreliable about specific groups that don’t take into account individual differences, dangerous- can be used against certain groups
organic solidarity
collective consciousness that hinges on the need society's members have for one another
the particular emphasis or interpretation we give a role, our “style”
role performance
Feminist theory→ 
Feminist theory→  A sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of experience of women. There are many strands of feminist theory, but they all share the desire to explain gender inequalities in society and to work to overcome them.
the economic and political dominance of the Least Industrialized Nations by the Most Industrialized Nations
Privilege Groups are assumed to represent society as a whole.T/F
the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
is a graphic presentation of correlation
formal organizations
large highly stuctured groups organized to achieve specific goals
Abstract standards that guide behavior, differentiate between right and wrong
Dominant Culture
People use rumors to understand ambiguous situations and manage people’s uncertainly (closing a dorm) - A piece of info gathered informally used to understand an ambiguous situations
Compliance to a higher authority (military- must obey set rules)
Living Room Scale
Homology Argument
you can tell someone's class by their appearance, homes, recreation and language
a concept whose value changes from case to case
people cannot achieve goals of society by acceptable means
Advocated that the universe runs like a clock (mechanistic analogy)
Racialized Social Systems
-group in superior position gets...
-economic reward
-labor market benefits
-primary position in politics
-higher social estimation
-pschological wage
Socially Constructed
what is considered deviant varies across time and place.→so it depends when you’re talking about, or where→ex. Prohibition, alcohol completely banned, today it is legal for over 21→Smoking marijuana illegal in the US, but legal in Amsterdam
culture traits
individual tools, acts, or beliefs that are related to a particlar situation or need
A social position that is relatively disadvantaged in terms of life chances, e.g., blocked opportunities to political influence, economic participation, rights.
links the social disadvantages of women to the capitalist economic system
socialist feminism
used intellect, social service work, and political activism to assist the underprivileged and creat a more equal society
Jane Addams
Concept: feeling of disorientation or confusion we experience when we come into contact with a different culture
Culture Shock
correlation of zero
an independent relationship between two or more variables
Culturally defined standard or rule of conduct.
freud's term for the part of personality that is rational
irreverence or contempt for God or sacred principles or things; irreligious
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
Karl Marx
communist manifesto- why there was separation in classes, means of production- resources necessary for survival
Temporary gathering of people in close proximity who share a common interest (crowds have predictable behavior)
sex ratio
the proportional distribution of the sexes in a population aggregate, expressed as the number of males per 100 females
study of a person's behavioral use of space
the act of separating acts of cruelty from a sense of being good and moral.
trends in stereotyping
1.  stereotypes often become a self-fulfilling prophecy
2.  stereotypin in action: racial profiling
Principles of Stratification
-Trait of socirty, not individual differences-Persists over genreation. Social Mobility exists
Culture (definition)

refers to material objects as well as patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving that are passed from generation to generation by members of society.
According to the poverty line, how many Americans are considered officially poor?
44 million.
closed system
a system in which boundaries between strata are impermeable and positions in society are ascribed without opportunity for change
the part of the personality that is moral; popularly known as the conscienceFreud
Value contradiction
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other
True or False: Most people in the United States believe marriage naturally follows falling in love.
Thomas' Theorem
Situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences.
The total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts
expressive leadership
group leadership that focuses on the collective well being of the group
sapir-whorf hypothesis
concerning the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality, language is culturally determined
formal, meant to aid in the function of a formal organization. - division of labor, hierarchy, written rules, impersonal, employment=technical qualifications
iron law of oligarchy
organizations begin as oligarchy (democratic) and move to bureaucracy
hate crime
Crime that is committed against a victim based on some physical or cultural characteristic
to cut apart (an animal body, plant, etc.) to examine the structure, relation of parts, or the like.
closed society
difficult or impossible to move up in the hierarchy. ex: INDIA
Theoretical Approach
A basic image of society that guides thinking and research.
A group of people who have a similar level of wealth and income
socialization (Mead)
-said the self involves 2 phases: the I and the Me-the social self is a product of the interaction between the two.
-play, games, role-taking=important
What are status offenses?
status offenses are only crimes because of the "status" of the people who commit them.
welfare or state capitalism
individuals have certain rights but are overseen by the government
_______ leads to suicide
lower social integration leads to ____
Mores are norms that do not have great moral significance attached to them.
Canaanite Context: Polytheism
The Key Figures: El, Baal, Astarte, Molech
-plural, its too much to expect a unified religious culture in such an agrarian place.
-the solitary worship of Yahweh emerges from this.
the trend in which a higher level of educationis required in order to secure a solid middle class job= socioeconomic inequality
Mead's research of gender
Central to gender studies, gender isn’t biological, A-tribe= same U.S. gender roles, M-tribe= men and women both aggressive, less labor division, T-tribe= men are passive and vain (shop and curling hair, etc)
social process
the means by which culture and social organization change or are preserved
Persons Case
a court case in which the Famous Five successfully fought to have women declared “persons” under Canadian law in 1929
which of the following explains the the decreasing teen pregnancy rate?
condoms, adoption, contraceptives, reduced sexuality rate
a system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige (does not refer to individuals)
social stratification
Dependant Variablerelies on what has changed
5 Steps to Sociological Research
Marx on class differences
Class is divided by the “haves” and “have nots,” access to certain key resources in society determines success
informal and formal social control
Informal- casual way of enforcing social norms, formal- carried out by an authorized social agent
functionalist view of stratification
There are differences, but they are necessary- economic rewards act as a motivator in society, ex: brain surgeons make a lot of money to compensate for all their hard work
physical and mental health
higher risk toward the lower ends of social ladder
Symbolic Interaction Approach on Sexuality-How it has changed
-yes, the meanings people attach to virginity and other sexual matters are all socially constructed and subject to change
Conflict perspective:
World systems theory
focuses on the fact that core nations exploit the natural resources of the periphery nations

Industrialized nations of North America and Europe account for only 12% of world’s population, but are responsible for 60% of the world’s consumption

Capitalist system is the key cause of destruction
How does Weber define power?
The ability to impose one’s will over another, some have more social than others- upper class, there is a varied degree of power that is used and not used
What did Auguste Compte to that made him so popular?
He coined the term "sociology."
What is the social construction of gender?
The expectation and roles society builds around biological sex
Question: Which of the following is accurate about today's slavery?

a) Today's slaves are controlled by debt, violence, and the abuse of vulnerability
b) Today, the number of slaves is decreasing
c) Today's slaves are more expensive than those in the 185
a) Today's slaves are controlled by debt, violence, and the abuse of vulnerability
what is religion? what is the relationship between secularization and religion?
religion is a system of beliefs and rituals that involve the sacred. secularization refers to the historical decline in the influence of religion and the sacred in understanding the world around us. thus there is a tension between secularization and religion religious explantions are rooted in the sacred and secualr explanations are rooted in science.
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