Sociology Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Biological characteristics
Income inequality 1970
Coined the term \"sociology\"
the law
Governmental social control
All assets an individual owns.
Privilege doesn't neccessarily lead to a good life:T/F
is the domestication of animals
According to demographers, people aged65-74 are characterized as the
ruling, governing, or controlling; having or exerting authority or influence:
interested in the meanings that individuals attach to their actions and to the actions of others
The interactive process through which people learn the basic skills, values, beliefs and behavior patterns of society
Individuals who temporarily share the same space
hereditary system of rank usually based on religon
Is symbolic interactionist macro or micro?
Preindustrial/Industrial/Post-Industrial Economies
Pre: based on agricultural technology, specialized work, permanent settlements and tradeIndustrial: based on new sources of energy and specialized work in factories turning materials into productPost: based on shift to service work and computer technology
norms that aren't strictly enforced; everyday customs:please and thankyou
individualistic explanation
tendency to attribute people's achievements and failures to their personal qualities
Social patterns resulting form industrialization
Herbert Spencer
Darwin's evolution applied to behavior, explained poverty, don't change status qou b/c people naturally evolve
The behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group/society
a group of two; couple; pair.
an expected behavior associated with a particular status
steps in research
indentify the problem, review literature, formulate hypothesis, develop research design, survey/case study, collect data, analyze data, state findings & conclusion
a perspective that constrains the researcher from becoming in any way involved in the event he or she is observing
detached observation
T/FComte dealt with the notions of order and change with the concepts of social statics and social dynamics
socioeconomic status
social location, defined by education occupation and financial resources
Caste System
a social stratification based on acknowledgement, or birth
is any attitud belief or institutional arrangement that vaors one racial gropu over another with intentional or unintentional consequeces for minority groups
the production process us organized to guarantee uniformty of product and standardized outcomes
representative democracy
routine, open, and free elections; rational-legal authority over the \"peoples' will\"
based on the pasturing of animals
pastoral societies
Negative sanction
An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal prison sentence or an execution.
a smaller religious group that stands apart from the larger society and has broken away from a more formalized religious organization in order to renew what it believes is the true or original faith.
rewards for conforming to norms and punishments for violations of norms
Class Society
A capitalist society with pronounced social stratification
opinion leader
someone who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day-to-day personal contact and communication
total institution
controls all aspects of an individual's life. - religion, jail, military
means of production are publicy owned, goal- meet population's needs, social health care, public schools
Jane Addams
Founder of social work, created juvinile court system, fought against chicago school segregation, the Hull House
cultural transmission
Crime is learned through daily interactions, you grow up in media you are exposed to (determine your criminal behavior) , interactionist
the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture
-Find real people to fit the show's theme
-Use plugs (advertise, find volunteers)
-Find experts, use databases, studio audience or fan mail
scientific stage
scientific approach w/ phys world and sociology
informal norm
a norm that generally understood but not precisely recorded
relative deprivation
a discontent associated with the gap between what ppl actually have and what they have come to expect and feel to their just due
dominant culture
the culture that takes precedence over other cultures in activities or events involving people from many categories of the population
prejudice, ethnocentrism, racism
Prejudice: Negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minorityEthnocentrism: Tendency to assume that one’s culture and way of life are superior to all othersRacism: Belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior
groups that have broken off form an established church, when a faction questions its legitmacy-
Secondary group
A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity.
# of children that women are capable of bearing
Social disorganization theory
The theory that attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions, such as the family, school, church, and local government.
the belief in and worhip of one god
Ascribed Statuses
Statuses that are based on social valuations of factors beyond individuals' control, such as race, gender, or age.
differential justice
differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups
dominant ideology
a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interest
formal, meant to aid in the function of a formal organization. - division of labor, hierarchy, written rules, impersonal, employment=technical qualifications
collective consciousness
When women become aware of the inequalities and when they mobilize to fight against it, women begin to label themselves as feminists, now that more women are becoming breadwinners- there is a predicted change in collective consciousness
exploitation theory
Uses race to exploit another racial group (minority) ex- keep people of color in low paying jobs
status group
a social stratum sharing the same lifestyle or occupation and having the same level of prestige
3rd Institution
Religion, the belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods
The belief that one age category is by nature superior to another age category.
social group
two or more people who identify or interact with each other
Market exchange
goods and services bought and sold for money at a price determined by the forces of supply and demand.
the sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.
conflict perspectives (including feminist theory)Gender is the key element of social structure and social life
Sacred vs. Profane
Sacred - Elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, fear, etc.; Assumes people have faith

Profane – ordinary elements of everyday life; everything not sacred (i.e. desk)
True or False: By law, a husband has the right to decide where the married couple will live.
Structural Functional Perspective
Manifest - Recognized by a social unit
anticipatory socialization
learning that helps a person acheive a desired position
polygamy, polygyny, polyandry
gamy- many spouses, gyny- man married to may women, andry- woman married to many men
craze vs panic
Craze- a mass of involvement toward something that lasts for a long period of time (cabbage patch dolls, wii) Panic- a fearful arousal or a collective flight based on a generalized belief (disaster situations)
interactionist research on gender
How gender roles affect gender interactions, conversations btw men and women (interruption), men interrupt women more than visa versa- regardless of situation
Gan's view on poverty
Deserving vs underserving poor= this is an incorrect and unhealthy notion/ idea- society benefits from poverty- 1- menial labor, 2- poverty creates jobs, 3- when society uses poor as scapegoats it enforces social norms, 4- having poor guaranteed a raise in social status for others, 5- poor absorb the cost for institutional change
social class
a broad group in society having common economic, cultural, or political status
zero population growth
it takes an average of 2.1 children per womn of childbearing age for modern population to replace itself without immigration
What are street crimes?
crimes that often occur in public settings. Are reported by FBI and given media attention.
Which theory of aging do the aged prefer?
the activity theory
If a leader gets her authority from her exceptional personal or emotional appeal,
has charismatic authority.
role of language in culture
the foundation of culture, displays the priorities of culture, certain words tell what is important to a culture
merton's theory of deviance
Goals society sets up for people, looks specifically at individual groups
a group one is born into, which has a distinguishable identity and whosemembers have less power and access to resources than other groups in society because ofthat group membership
minority group
What does collective conscience mean?
The group mind. The shared conscience of a group/society
eg- 10 commandments
what is a public?
a dispersed group of people who share an interest in and issue ex- democrats and republicans
Gender stratification shapes in Politics
Until a century ago, almost no women held elected office in the US. Recent decades the number of women in poltics have increased. Vast majority of elected officials, especially at national level are men. Women make up 15% of the US military personnel.
secondary analysis of existing data
the use of data initially collected by other researchers to analyze a topic of interest
factors that impact mobility in the US
1- occupational mobility- ppl strive to do better than parents, 2- education- more educated = more class increase, 3- race/ethnicity, 4- gender
Weber and his description of the positions of people in society
1) Wealth: (Money+ Assets) - Debt= Wealth
2) Prestige: Rank, reputation, success
3) Power: Ability to control others despite resistance
associated with privacy in the global village
1- identity theft, internet is the new wild west, 2- concerned for privacy in different sphere, 3- don’t have a good record system- electronic material obsolete, bad in 5 to 10 years, 3- censorship- regulate internet more and more, supposed to be unmediated medium
Cultural/society characteristics
latent function
unpredictable outcome
Something that’s socially constructed, violation of a law, our idea of crime changes over time with change in deviance
Strategies that separate outsiders from the group.
According to the video lesson,______is an individual's own feeling about whether she or he sees herself or himself as a women or a man:a.Gender identityb.Self conceptc.Self awarenessd.Sexuality
Wallerstein and her colleagues followed their sample of children of divorce for ten years. In terms of the impact of divorce on these children ten years later and after, the overall impression left by their research is one of
pleasing in appearance; attractive; fair:
follows the tradition of Karl Marx
sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs and values that are characteristic of an individual
Horticultural Society
Cultivating plants by hand tools
respect and admiration an occupation holds in society
Which theoretical framework would likely correspond well with a qualitative study?
symbolic interactionist
invention: produces new ideas, objects and social patternsdiscovery: occurs when people take notice of existing elements in the world diffusion: products, people, and information spread from society to society
Harriet Martineau
1st female recognized sociologist. Translated Comte
Formal, legit power is known as_________.
Natural Environment
Earth's surface and atmosphee, including living organisms, air, water soil, and other resources necessary to sustain life
Nonverbal communication
facial expression, gesture, posture. Culturally embedded.
A mass involvement that features acceptance by society and has historical continuity, fashion comes from well established line of culture (video games)
capable of being dissolved or liquefied:
Social sanctions
rewards or punishments that encourage conformity to social norms
a field research method used most often by anthropologists when they study other cultures. Involves trying to understand the world from the point of view of the people whose lives are being studied
T/FIn the hierarchy of the sciences, sociology forms the base of the pyramid
3-dimensions that were used to place you in hierarchy1. wealth2. power3. prestige (status)
class system
social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
ethnic group
based on cultural factors, language religon, customs
unique set of traits, behaviors, and attitudes that distinguish one person from the next
a feeling of trust between researchers and subjects
A group whose values, beliefs and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture.
a system of beliefs and rituals involving the sacred and questions of ultimate meaning
achieved statuses
statuses of employment, mother, etc that we attain through our own actions
Sociologica Imagination
making a connection between personal experiences and larger social influences/institutions
scientific management approach
people motivated by economic needs
usually 2 parent homes, reject public school system, special needs children, religion, higher test scores, BUT- social isolation possible
when a relatively small number of people in the media industry control what material eventually reaches the audience
Certain key resources help you move social classes, education is best way to move up in society (possibility)
the fundamental character or spirit of a culture; the underlying sentiment that informs the beliefs, customs, or practices of a group or society
Mass Culture Theory
(Magic Bullet Theory)
-Audience as passive, powerless recipients of content; the cultural objects consume and overpower the people receiving them
-Audience controlled by fantasy; easily manipulated, cant decipher between real and fake
-Whatever meaning is in the cultural objects is transmitted directly to the consumer
symbolic-interaction approach
theory that sees society as the product of everyday interactions of individuals
the process by which a cultural item is spread from group to group or society to society
city of 10 million or more resients (USA: LA) (19 total)
means of production
marx meant the technologies and resources required for producing goods or services in an economy, such as factories, raw materials and machines.
Approximately 1 out of every 9 people in the U.S. lives below poverty line
White Collar Crimes
crimes committed by respectable and high social status in course of occupation
Labeling theory
An approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not.
agents of socialization
those groups institutions and people from which we learn the patterns of our culture.
victimization survey
a questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have eben victims of crime
Social Science
studies the features of human society and behavior interaction, change, etc (soc, poli sci, psych)
generalized other
children perceive the variety of roles w/in a society and relations btw people, recognize values and beliefs, internalization of social values
Feminists and Conflict P
Understanding inequalities in gender and how they come about
sexual harassment
1. behavior in the workplace where career advancement is given in exchange for sexual favors, 2.lude comments or gestures, any form of inappropriate touching any type of display of pornographic material => creates a hostile environment
functionalists on racial hostility
Racist beliefs provide justification for inequality, inequalities discourage minorities from questioning their status, racial myths discourage change
acceptance as one's own of the values and interests of a social group
5th Institution
Family, a group of people related to one another by blood, marriage or other intimate social bonds
Dependency Ratio
The number of workers for each person recieving Social Security benefits.
power elite model
an analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich
if husband dies wife may (or may be obligated to) marry a brother of her dead husband.
What are the two types of sociological research?
quantitative and qualitative
Monotheism vs. Polytheism
Mono- believe in one God

Poly - Believe in multiple gods
True or False: Nine out of ten babies born are healthy in the United States
Symbolic Interaction perspective
focuses on smaller groups rather then large groups of social units.
material vs non-material culture
m- the physical or technological aspects of daily life, non- ways of using material objects, as well as customs, beliefs, philosophies, govts, and patterns of communication
assembling perspective
What motivates people to move to a common space? (Tailgating) Now, we are looking at this through virtual space too (internet)
interactionists on class differences
How one demonstrates social class through lifestyle , importance of items demonstrating class status, social class leading to life meaning
patterns of intergroup relations
1- genocide- 1 majority group systematically kills minority group, 2- expulsion- major group gets rid of minorities (deport), 3- amalgamation- major and minor intermarry, creating a new group, 4- assimilation- minority adapts to major, 5- segregation- physical separation, 6- plurism- intergroup relations which force people to accept others
achieved status
the social position a person gains as a result of personal effort
gender socialization 
is the tendency for boys and girls to be socialized differently. Boys are raised to conform to the male gender role, and girls are raised to conform to the female gender or role.
What are victimless crimes?
crimes against social order or crimes against morality such as gambling, prostitution, illegal drug use, and drunkenness.
People may classify one another racially based on what?
physical characteristics such as:
skin color, facial features, hair texture and body shape
Crime will occur when motivated offenders and suitable targets find themselves in the same place in time.
More opportunities = more crime
rites of passage
events that mark the passage of a person's change in status. religious, educational, legal, etc
horizontal mobility and vertical mobility
horizontal: change in occupation, but not in the level of prestige vertical: change in the level of prestige and occupation such as CEO-> wokring at McDonalds
5 basic forms of adaptation
1- the conformist- conforms to society’s goals (work for $), 2- innovator- accepts goals but rejects means (steal $), 3- ritualist- accepts means of society but rejects goals, 4- retreatist- rejects the means and goals (volunteering), 5- rebel- rejects means and goals of society
respect, honor, recognition or courtesy an individual receives from other members in society
what are the main components of prestige?
What are lone parent families?
A parent with a child/children living on their own
mobility in industrial norms
1- Parents and children tend to have same social status in industrial nations, 2- mobility is effected by structures (prevalence of labor unions made more peeps mid. Class) 3- immigration is large factor with mobility (diff country/city -> US/other city)
Gender and Social Stratification in Family Life
Most unpaid housework is performed by women. Pregnancy and raising small children keep many women out of the labor force.
what is social control? how is it implemented?
social control involves collective attempts to ensure conformity to societal or group norms. control is attempted in tow ways. the most common form of social control is informal soicail control . this form of social control is a byproduct of everyday interactions. gossip stares and reprimands are all forms of informal social control. formal social control involves agents of society, such as the police and the courts in the apprehension and punishmetn of people believed to have broken laws.
What is the social construction of gender?
The expectation and roles society builds around biological sex
For deterrence to be successful it must meet what 3 criteria
1- Severity (punishment must be severe enough to make someone not want to do the crime)
2- Swiftness (punishment must come quickly after the crime has been committed)
3- Certainty (it must be certain that if someone commits a certain crime he/she will be punished)
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