Sociology: A down to Earth Approach Ed Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Emerging Values
leisure,self-fullfillment, physical fitness, youthfulness, concern for the environment
What is Objectivity?
Total Neutrality
12 - 14
formal opertaional stage.
subcultures
a world withing a dominant culture
cultural universals
courtship, marriage, funerals, games are exmaples of ________. incest, murder, is the opposite.
countercultures
groups within the mainstream society whose values and norms place it at odds with the dominant culture.
piaget
_________ and the development of reasoning
resociolization
learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors. (EX: a boss who insists on a different way of doing things)
id
it demands the immediate fulfillment of basic needs: food, safety, attention, sex.
What is Macro?
Macro-Level AnaylysisAn examination of Large-scale patterns of society
What is Macro?
Macro-Level Anaylysis

An examination of Large-scale patterns of society
Cultural lag
william ogburn's term ---meaning that not all parts of a culture change at the same pace...usually material changes first and nonmaterial lags.
negative Sanctions
replects dissaproval for breaking a norm. (being fined in court, can be symbolic : harsh words, or gestures such as frowns, raised fists.
values
ideas of what is desirable in life
life course
the stages from birth to death.
latent functions
the unintended consequences that help a social system.
Global emotions
Paul Elkman's theory of _______ ______.
superego
as the moral conponent of personality, the _______ provokes feelings of guilt or shame when we break social rules, or pride and self-satisfaction when we follow them.
Who is Max Weber?
1864-1920Was another early sociologist who left a profound impression on sociology. He used cross-cultural and historical materials to determine how extensively social groups affect peoples orientations to life
What is Authority?
Power that people consider legitmate
folkways
men walking without a shirt on is considered a _________
sensory motor stage
understanding is limited to direct contact. hearing, touching, seeing.
preconventional stage
in the ________ stage, children have learned rules, and follow them to stay out of trouble.
hidden curiculum
this term refers to values not explicity taught. (EX: stories about democracy, justice, patriotism, honesty intended to teach english or math.)
7 - 12
concrete operational stage age range is?
6 basic emotions
anger disgust fear happiness sadness and suprise.
birth - 2
sensory motor stage age range is?
Who is Harriet Martineau?
1802-1876Interested in Social reform. She discovered the writings of Comte. An advocate for the abolition of slavery, she traveled widely and wrote extensively. Her book, society in America, provides a fascinating analysis of U.S. life prior to the Civil War.
What does Political Science focus on?
Politics and Government
What is Natural Science?
The intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment.
What is Natural Science?
The intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment.
What is Non-Verbal Interactions?
Communication without words through gestures, space, silence, and so on
total institutions
places were you are forced to conform. (EX: boot camp, prisons)
imitation
children under age 3 has no sense of self and imitates others.
Melvin Kahn
The family and social class is an theory of socioligist _____ ____. (name)
What is Positivism?
The idea of applying the Scientific Method to the social world. Was 1st proposed by Auguste Comte
What is Symbolic Interactionism?
A theroretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.
Who was W.E.B Du Bois?
1868-1963Spent his lifetime studying relations between African Americans and Whites.
What is Positivism?
The idea of applying the Scientific Method to the social world.
Was 1st proposed by Auguste Comte
What is Sociology?
The scientific study of society and human behavior
What is Symbolic Interactionism?
A theroretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.
Cultural Relativism
To try to understand a culture on its own terms. (instead of using ours as a lens).
transtitional adulthood
ages 18 - 29 a period of extended youth
What does Economics focus on?
Production and distribution of the material goods and services of a society
What was Jane Adams major contribution to sociology?
Social ReformCo-founded Hull HouseWon Nobel Peace Prize for Hull House
What is Subjective Meanings
The meanings that people give their own behavior
What is Social Facts?
Durkheim's term for a groups pattern of behavior
What is Replication?
Repeating a study in order to check its findings
team games
after age 6 or 7, learn to take on multiple roles.
What is Social Integration?
The degree to which people feel a part of social groups.Identified by Emile Durkheim
What are the goals of science?
1. Explain why something happens
2. Make generalizations (go beyond individual to groups)
3. Predict what will happen
the looking glass self
We imagine how we appear to others. is an element of?
What is Social Integration?
The degree to which people feel a part of social groups.
Identified by Emile Durkheim
What is Objectivity?
Total Neutrality
manifest function
has an intended purpose.
Culture
The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next.
Sanctions
Reactions people recieve for following or breaking those norms.
Me
"_" is the self as objective.
What is Micro?
Micro-Level Analysis

An examination of small-scale patterns of society
Material Culture
Things such as jewelry, art, buildings, weapons, machines, and even eating utensils, hairstyles, and clothing is an example of
Positive Sanctions
Expresses approval for following a norm. (It can be material, such as a prize, trophy, hugs, smiles, 'high fives)."
value cluster of success
hardwork, education, material comfort
adolescence
ages 13 - 17 Industrial revolution brought such an abuldance of material surpluses that teens were able to remain ourside of the labor force.
2 - 7
preopertaional stage age range is?
sociolization
the family is an agent of ______
What is Globalization?
The extensive interconnections among nations due to the expansion of capitalism
What is Authority?
Power that people consider legitmate
What is Globalization?
The extensive interconnections among nations due to the expansion of capitalism
taboo
a norm so strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion. When broken the individual is usually judged unfit to live in society.
sapir-Whorf hypothesis
hebrew does not have separate words for jam and jelly, it uses the same words, but seeing it english their is a difference is an example of the______________.
personal relationships
Gilligan said that women are more likely to evaluate morality in terms of __________ _______.
Kohlberg and gilligan
_________ and _________, and the development of morality.
concrete operational stage
The reasoning is developed. children understand concepts of speed, math. but have diffculty with abstract principles such as "truth".
Who is associated with the Conflict theory?
Karl Marx
Who is Karl Marx?
1818-1883Analyzed the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisi. He believed that the overthrow of the bourgeoisi by the proletariat was inevitable. Although Marx did not consider himself a sociologist, his ideas have profoundly influenced many sociologist, particulary conflict thoerists.
What does Sociology focus on?
Society and human behavior
Who is Harriet Martineau?
1802-1876
Interested in Social reform. She discovered the writings of Comte. An advocate for the abolition of slavery, she traveled widely and wrote extensively. Her book, society in America, provides a fascinating analysis of U.S. life prior to the Civil War.
Who is Karl Marx?
1818-1883
Analyzed the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisi. He believed that the overthrow of the bourgeoisi by the proletariat was inevitable. Although Marx did not consider himself a sociologist, his ideas have profoundly influenced many sociologist, particulary conflict thoerists.
Who is associated with the Conflict theory?
Karl Marx
nonmaterial culture
A groups way of thinking (its beliefs, values, and other assumptions abou the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language, gestures, and other forms of interaction) is an example of
abstract principles
gilligan said that men are more likely to evaluate morality in terms of abstract principles. (EX: honor, right, wrong)
What is Sociology?
The scientific study of society and human behavior
What is Globalization of Capitalism?
Capitalism becoming the globe's dominant economic system
What is Theory
A general statement anout how some parts of the world fit together and how they work: an explination of how two or more facts are related to one another
What are the social sciences?
1. Political Science
2. Economics
3. Anthropology
4. Psychology
5. Sociology
Who is Jane Addams?
1860-1935
A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, worked on behalf of poor immigrants. She founded Hull House, a center to help immigrants in Chicago. She was a leader in Women's Rights as well as the Peace Movement of WWI
Who was W.E.B Du Bois?
1868-1963
Spent his lifetime studying relations between African Americans and Whites.
degradation ceremony
that is an attempt by others to remake the self by stripping away the individuals current identity and stamping a new on in its place.
upper class
Upon seeing your friend in a long time you are more reserved in expressing your delight. What social class are you?
What is the Scientific Method?
THe use of objective, systematic observations to test theories
What does Economics focus on?
Production and distribution of the material goods and services of a society
Wha is Value Free?
The view that a sociologist's personal values should not influence social research
What is the Conflict Thoery?
A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups competing for scarce resources.
early middle years
30 - 65 most people are sure of themselves and of their goals in life. but can come with sever jolts such as job loss. for women it poses a challenge to "have it all" superworkers, supermoms, superwives.
What was Harriet Martineau's major contribution to sociology?
Published "Society in America" and translated Comte's ideas into English
What does Anthropology focus on?
Culture, a people's total way of life
What is C. Wright Mills ideas about the Sociological Perspective?
"The Sociological Perspective enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography"
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