Solar System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
German astronomer.
a moon of Neptune.
a northern constellation between Cassiopeia and Taurus, containing the variable star Algol.
the earth's natural satellite, orbiting the earth at a mean distance of 238,857 miles (384,393 km) and having a diameter of 2160 miles (3476 km).
a northern circumpolar constellation between Cassiopeia and Draco.
the curved path, usually elliptical, described by a planet, satellite, spaceship, etc., around a celestial body, as the sun.
the Centaur, a southern constellation between Lupus and Vela, containing the triple-star system Alpha Centauri.
the Winged Horse, a northern constellation between Cygnus and Aquarius.
the Swan, a northern constellation southwest of Draco, containing the bright star Deneb.
a moon of the planet Saturn.
the natural satellite of Pluto, discovered in 1978.
the Lyre, a northern constellation between Cygnus and Hercules, containing the bright star Vega.
a moon of the planet Neptune.
the Keel, a southern constellation, containing the bright star, Canopus: one of the constellations into which Argo is divided.
the Water Bearer, a zodiacal constellation between Pisces and Capricornus
a northern constellation, between Lyra and Corona Borealis.
the Scorpion, a zodiacal constellation between Sagittarius and Libra, containing the bright star Antares.
the Goat, a zodiacal constellation between Sagittarius and Aquarius.
the Dragon, a northern circumpolar constellation between Ursa Major and Cepheus.
the River, a large southern constellation between Cetus and Orion, containing the bright star Achernar.
a moon of the planet Uranus.
the Crab, a zodiacal constellation between Gemini and Leo.
the Lion, a zodiacal constellation between Virgo and Cancer, containing the bright star Regulus.
the Herdsman, a northern constellation between Ursa Major and Serpens, containing the bright star Arcturus.
the Eagle, a northern constellation south of Cygnus, containing the bright star Altair.
one of the moons of Saturn.
the Virgin, a zodiacal constellation between Leo and Libra, containing the bright star Spica.
southern cross
a southern constellation between Centaurus and Musca.
the Cup, a small southern constellation west of Corvus and north of Hydra.
the Chained Lady, a northern constellation between Pisces and Cassiopeia.
canis major
the Great Dog, a southern constellation between Puppis and Orion, containing Sirius, the Dog Star, the brightest of the stars.
the first asteroid to be discovered, being the largest and one of the brightest.
one of the five moons of Uranus.
the largest moon of the planet Jupiter.
the Serpent Bearer, a constellation on the celestial equator between Libra and Aquila.
a small moon of the planet Jupiter.
one of the two moons of Mars.
an asteroid located between Saturn and Uranus, about 100 mi. (160 km) in diameter: discovered in 1977.
a large volcanically active moon of the planet Jupiter.
an asteroid that approaches to within 14 million miles (22½ million km) of the earth once every 44 years.
any of the heavenly bodies, except the moon, appearing as fixed luminous points in the sky at night.
the planet second in order from the sun, having an equatorial diameter of 7521 miles (12,104 km), a mean distance from the sun of 67.2 million miles (108.2 million km), a period of revolution of 224.68 days, and no moons. It is the most brilliant planet i
a comet that passed closer to the earth than any other comet (1770), but now has an orbit that is too distant from the earth for it to be observed.
a moon of the planet Saturn, located just outside the rings.
the planet fifth in order from the sun, having an equatorial diameter of 88,729 mi. (142,796 km), a mean distance from the sun of 483.6 million mi. (778.3 million km), a period of revolution of 11.86 years, and at least 14 moons. It is the largest planet
one of the moons of the planet Uranus.
the planet fourth in order from the sun, having a diameter of 4222 miles (6794 km), a mean distance from the sun of 141.6 million miles (227.9 million km), a period of revolution of 686.95 days, and two moons.
the planet ninth in order from the sun, having an equatorial diameter of about 2100 miles (3300 km), a mean distance from the sun of 3.674 billion miles (5.914 billion km), a period of revolution of 248.53 years, and one known moon, Charon.
the planet sixth in order from the sun, having an equatorial diameter of 74,600 mi. (120,000 km), a mean distance from the sun of 886.7 million mi. (1427 million km), a period of revolution of 29.46 years, and 21 known moons. It is the second largest plan
to move or tend to move under the influence of gravitational force.
a plane curve such that the sums of the distances of each point in its periphery from two fixed points, the foci, are equal. It is a conic section formed by the intersection of a right circular cone by a plane that cuts the axis and the surface of the con
the fourth largest and one of the four brightest asteroids.
the third largest and one of the four brightest asteroids.
(astronomy) a relatively small extraterrestrial body consisting of a frozen mass that travels around the sun in a highly elliptical orbit
7th planet from the sun
rocky metallic objects that orbit the sun but are too small to be considered planets
the eighth planet from the Sun; is large and gaseous, has rings that vary in thickness, and is bluish-green in color
waxing crescent
The Moon appears to be partely but less that one-half illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing.
new moon
moon phase that occurs when the Moon is between Earth and the Sun, at which point the Moon cannot be seen because its lighted half is facing the Sun and its dark side faces Earth
full moon
the time when the moon is fully illuminated
1st planet from the sun
i am finished. jevens rocks, me+cake=happy
waning gibbous
The Moon appears to be more than one-half full but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing.
first quarter
Waxing Moon phase in which one-half of the Moon's lighted side can be seen from Earth
waxing gibbous
The Moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing.
bear constilation
terrestrial planets
smaller in size
Jupiter has ___ moons.
Roman God of the Sea
perseid showers
occur in mid august
young Energetic galaxies.
emits more energy from nuclus than can be explained
all gases around the planet
a meteor that hits Earth's surface
a splendid assemblage (especially of famous people)
a large rock in outer space
the turningof an object onan axis
The force which attracts things towards the Earth and causes them to fall to the ground.
Saturns rings
-made of ice, reflective
-would stretch between Earth and moon
solar system
system of nine planets, including Earth, and other objects that revolve around the Sun
Astroid belt
smal rocky object. orbits between jupiter and mars
One complete circular movement made by one object around another object.
the portion of earth that is water
The inner layer of the Sun's atmosphere.
Voyager 2 discovered that Uranus has ______.
the outermost region of the sun's atmosphere that looks like a white halo around the sun
milky way
The galaxy in which we live
Binary Stars
Systems in which physically associated star systems are made up of two stars.
Who thought heliocentric was right?
Copernicus & Galileo
The area of total darkness in the shadow caused by an eclipse.
nebular theory
theory that states that the solar system began as a cloud of dust and gas
the force of one object's pull on another
a group of stars that ancient people thought formed a picture in the sky
It"s the ratio of the distance between the foci to the length of the major Axis.
Which 4 planets have rings?
jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
a huge, reddish loop of gas that protrudes from the sun's surface, linking parts of the sunspot region.
gravitational force
the force of attraction between all objects that have mass
Winter Solstice
Shortest day of sunlight for the northern hemisphere
Why does Jupiter bulge at its equator?
Rapid spin
The Sun
Largest object in the Solar System, contains more then 99% of the solar systems mass
an object in space that produces its own light and heat
Tycho Brahe observed the positions of the planets for how long?
20 years
The shape taken as the gravity of the matter inside a nebula takes over
Earth is tilted on its axis. This tilt causes the sun's rays to strike some places on Earth more directly during certain times of the year this causes the _________.
time of year that has a certain kind of weather
Has frozen water at the poles (planet(s))
Mars and Earth
having the earth as the center in the solar system
the 3rd planet from the sun with a watery surface
Solar Flare
A bright eruption of hot gas in the Sun's photosphere. Solar prominences are usually only detectable by specialized instruments but can be visible during a total solar eclipse.
Who was the sun fromed
As the cloud contracted and temperature increases, core reaches 10 million degrees centigrade and nuclear fusion begins.
Sun's Core
The dense, hot central part of the Sun in which hydrogen burning takes place while it is on the main sequence and in which the fusion of heavier elements will occur later on.
Why does India's ancient model contain mountains?
India contains the Himalayas(mountains)
waning phase
After the full Moon, we see less and less of the lit side of the Moon
gravitational pull of Sun
this keeps the Earth and other planets in their orbits
vernal equinox
a day in the spring when the night and day are the same-12 hours
Water is essential to life on Earth. Scientists also think it existed on Mars before. What elements do you need to make water?
H20 (Hydrogen 2, Oxygen 1)
What does the effect of gravity have on our solar system?
Gravity keeps the solar system in orbit. Gravity causes the moon to fall toward Earth and changes a straight line path into a curved orbit. When the distance between two objects in space decreases the gravitational attraction between the two objects will increase. (556, 632)
what happens to a planets temperature when it has a think atmosphere?
it will keep heat in so it will be hot
Jupiters Moons
Outer Planets
outer planets=
joviant planets
reach our planet daily
surrounded by thick clouds
axis of tilt
influences the seasons
what galaxy is the milky way
how many moons does jupiter have?
shape of planetary orbits
elliptical, or oval
for the sun, from the sun
a planet in another solar system
15 million degrees celcius, where nuclear fusion occurs in sum
most asteroids are in
the asteroid belt
The angular distance of a planetary body from the Sun as seen from Earth. A planet at greatest eastern elongation is seen in the evening sky and a planet at greatest western elongation will be seen in the morning sky.
Greenhouse effect
Trapping of heat in the atmosphere
lunar highlands
part of the original lunar crust
solar wind
A STREAM of electrically charged particles produced by the sun's corona.
A term used by astronomers to describe all elements except hydrogen and helium, as in "the universe is composed of hydrogen, helium and traces of metals". This astronomical definition is quite different from the traditional chemistry definition of a metal.
beneath the corona is the middle layer of the sun's atmosphere
Sun centered model
devoped by Nicholas Copernicus. Moon revolves around eartth. Planets revolve around sun.
nuclear fusion
a nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy
Kuiper Belt
the region of icy bodies beyond Neptune housing most of the dwarf planets
Galileo's discoveries
craters and mountains on Earth's moon, 4 of Jupiter's moons, sunspots on the Sun, and phases of Venus.
radiation zone
layer of the sun's interior where energy is transferred mainly by electromagnetic raadiation
Rocky planet
a planet primarily made of silicate rocks (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars)
Dark flat regions which were once seas of molten rock.
an object that orbits or spins around other object in space
Lunar Eclipse
A phenomenon that occurs when the Moon passes into the shadow of the Earth. A partial lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes into the penumbra, or partial shadow. In a total lunar eclipse, the Moon passes into the Earth's umbra, or total shadow.
The point in its orbit where a planet is farthest from the Sun; when refering to objects orbiting the Earth the term apogee is used; the term apoapsis is used for orbits around other bodies. (opposite of perihelion)
Which galaxy is home to our solar system?
Milky Way
chunks of rock and metal that range in size from the smallest rocks we can find on Earth to a few hundred kilometers
What is the composition of the moon like?
Earth's mantle
What is it called when the light on the moon is shrinking?
What has the most powerful force in the entire solar system?
The sun.
The presence of iron oxide
Mars has a distinctively reddish surface primarily because of
period of revolution
time an object takes to revolve around an object once
8 chromosphere
is a thin layer between the Corona and photoshpere
Stage 2: Impact Basin Formation
-massive impactor scoured out immense basins
-created lunar highlands surround the maria
-3.5-3.2 billion years ago
A dense layer of the sun where light and energy are blocked and sent into different directions
radiative zone
cellular, use energy, reproduce and give off waste
Characteristics of living things on Earth
Witch planet has the most moons and how many does it have?
Jupiter, it has 63 moons
My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pies.
Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
The sun is the main cause of what on earth?
Weather patterns. ex. energy, heat, light
drake equation
jovian planets
less dense
meteor ""
shooting star
Which planet has water?
~orbits a star
~not a star
~"cleared out" its orbit
Three dwarf planets
Pluto, Ceres, Eris
International Astronomical Union, has sanction over astronomical definitions and rules.
solar systems
planets that orbit a star
Spinning of Earth on its axis
all the area beyond the earth
Galileo Galilei
(1564-1642) Italian astronomer. First to use a telescope to study the heavens. Discovered the first moons of an extraterrestrial body (Jupiter's four largest moons).
An effect caused by the apparent wobble of the Moon as it orbits the Earth. The Moon always keeps the same side toward the Earth, but due to libration, 59% of the Moon's surface can be seen over a period of time.
A natural satellite that is a celestial body that orbits a planet or smaller planetary body.
are classified by their positions in the solar system and by their characteristics
Abbe Georges Lemaitre
Father of "Big Bang Theory"
round structure with old stars, gas, and dust.
the tiny building blocks of the planets.
A particle of light composed of a minute quantity of electromagnetic energy.
a galaxy is best described as a cluster of------ of stars
The dark areas of the earths surface, called sunspots, are cooler than the rest of the sun's surface and don't give off as much light.
big-bang theory
A hypothesis, supported by data, that describes how the universe began with a huge explosion.
a chunk of rock or dust in space
Makes life on our planet possible by giving us great amounts of light and heat. Contains about 98% of the mass of the entire Solar System. Is just a medium sized star (yellow dwarf). It is about 1.4 million kilometers in diameter. Is the center of our Solar System. All the planets and other objects orbit around it. Is very gaseous, and made up mostly of hydrogen. Contains darkspots that are known as sunspots.
The tendency of a moving object to continue in a straight line or a stationary object to remain in place.
4 Parts of the Sun
Core, photosphere, chromosphere, corona
large cloud of dust and gas, stars begin as this
Neap Tides
The tide with the least difference between consecutive low and high tides.
convection zone
the outermost layer of the sun's interior
Toward the sun
Gravity pulls planets _______ (what direction?)
a light that goes off and on rapidly
iron oxide
This compound is a principal part of the soil on Mars and it is this compound that gives it its red color.
Spring Tide
highest tidal range that occurs to the alignment of Earth, the moon, and the sun
What happens if objects have more mass and move closer together ?
They increase
the periodic rise and fall of the sea level under the gravitational pull of the moon
A STREAK OF LIGHT in the sky produced by the burning of a meteoroid in Earth's atmosphere
time it takes for earth to rotate once around axis
big bang theory
a theory that believes the universe started as a dense ball of matter that exploded to form the universe
the center of a comet, made of small particles of
the little dipper
Polaris(The North Star) is at the end of its handle
Ptolemy's Model
thought the Earth is at the center of a system of planets and stars and gave planets an orbit
Spiral galaxy
a galaxy with a bulge in the middle and arms that spiral outward in a pinwheel pattern
order of planets from the SUN
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Where do the materials of a meteor shower come from?
Materials from a comet
What is a meteor
A piece of rock or metal that enters the earth's atmosphere
What is a spectrum in science?
Newton showed that white light can be split up in its component colors which he
called a spectrum. A diagram of intensity versus wavelength is also known as a spectrum.
What is matter made of according to modern science?
Atoms that in turn are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
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