Spain Flashcards

Cabernet Sauvignon
Terms Definitions
sherry wine
La Coruna
small religious settlements
to belong to
el cid campeador
Vino de Mesa
el capital de Espana
La reina
Sofia de Suiza
● Toro DO:
Historically and currently known for full-bodied, powerful red wines made mostly from Tinta de Toro (Tempranillo) and Garnacha. Improved technology has led to better, fresher, and more approachable reds.
tumba de Cristobal Colon
Tarragona Priorat DOCa grapes
New Spain
Spanish colony, capital Mexico
Museo del Prado
grandes pintores espanoles
Taos Pueblo, c. 17th century
Multi-story native dwellings of adobe built by Pueblo Peoples
Sun-dried mud “puddled” by hand
Roofs covered by vigas, or pine beams
Ladders allow access from above
large apartment complex often 3 to 5 stories
massive block like forms with appearance of decoration which gives a bold and simplistic look
adobe a mixture of clay, sand, and water shaped by hand
roofs were flat with slight slant
Where is Tarragona Penedes
Northeast Spain
Jardin de la alhambra
El Generalife, Granada
Se habla en el pais Vasco
la mancha DO
large central plateau
widespread plantings of airen for brandy
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
las Islas Canarias
Dos Castilla y Leon
•Ribera del Duero
•Tierra del Vino de Zamora
•Tierra de León
refective soil.. white.. best for Fino
to change a religion or a belief
1882-2020, natividad grande, de Gaudi, la cripta
La Sagrada Familia
Aztec leader, failed to stop the Spanish advance,
○ Consejo Regulador??????

: Classifies the quality of each vintage in five categories, from E (excellent) to VG, G, S (Standard), and A (Average). There has not been an ‘Average’ vintage since 1972, nor a ‘Standard’ one since 1984. Recent ‘Excellent’ vintages: 2005, 2004, 2001, 1995, 1994
centro de la industria minera del norte
Very Old Rare Sherry
Aged 30 years minimum age
In which city is the aqueduct that still brings water from the mountains?
caminar, de coche, trafico LENTO, transpotacion publica, lineas del sistema metro, taxiz, buses, BUHOS
transportacion de madrid
low ranking nobles who came to the Americas as conquistadors.
Although the Spanish did not find vast deposits of gold in the Americas, they did discover huge deposits of ______. Mining camps emerged all across northern Mexico.
● Navarra DO:
Overlaps part of the Rioja Baja region. Traditionally known for rosado made from Garnacha. Rosado still accounts for over half of production. The problem for red wines has been the reliance on Garnacha. The modern approach is more Tempranillo and some Cabernet Sauvignon. Some very good wines, similar to Rioja.
Navarra is divided into 5 districts
○ Baja Montana: Highest and wettest area. Mostly Tempranillo. Produces some of Navarra’s best rosés.
○ Ribera Alta: One of the most important districts. Reds, rosés, and whites produced.
○ Ribera Baja: Hot, dry area that overlaps the Rioja Baja district. Mostly red wines. Good quality sweet Moscatel wines.
○ Tierra Estrella: Straight-forward fruity reds and rosés.
○ Valdizarbe: Smallest of the Navarra districts. Good value reds and rosés.
● Cariñena DO
Hot, dry area mostly known for Garnacha-based reds. Some straight-forward whites are made from Viura and Garnacha Blanca.
adobe brick construction
Spanish builders adapt native adobe technology by inventing adobe bricks
Mud formed in molds
Bound with straw
Sealed with mud plaster
Dominate white grape in Rioja
Viura—known elsewhere as Macabéo
Rioja is the first and only spanish ______.
Iberian Peninsula
What's the name of the peninsula that Spain and Portugal share?
a large farm or ranch, often with its own village and church
100 monumentos y edificios, debajo de Montjuic, 1929
Pueblo espanol, Barcelon
what is Airén
The most planted variety in Spain according to acreage (approx. ½ million ha.)
Traditionally used for base wine for brandy production
Improved viticulture and vinification practices has led to better, refreshing but essentially simple wines
influence of Spanish Church
Pilgrimage Church of Santiago de Campostela, c. 1620
Highly ornate, twin-towered design
Classical invention
Ex of how baroque moved westward-in Spain,
Taller, not as wide, no dome, no classical façade
Unobvious pediment
Surfaces completely covered
% of Rijoa blends before experimental grapes can be added
Together, Tempranillo, Mazuelo(Carignan), Graciano and Granacha, these four grapes must comprise a minimum 85% of the red Rioja blend, or 95% if destemmed
Name 2 red grapes of Rioja & Navarra-
empranillo, granacha
The vinyards in toro sit at a _______ altitude.
Fortaleza para los arabes, Franco uso para su militar, hoy es un museo
El Alcazar de Toledo
The Pago System
Albariza land is divided into pagos or individual vineyards
Approx. 150 – some less than a hectare, some several thousand
Hotter and higher pagos tend to grow grapes that make good oloroso wines
Coastal pagos favour finos
Some vineyards names appear on the label: Añina, Balbaina, Carrascal, Macharnudo, Marti Miguel, Miraflores, Torrebreva, Los Tercios
Montilla-Moriles DO
A DO wine from the Cordoba province in southern Spain. Same styles as Sherry. Very hot area, and grapes have a very high potential alcohol. Fortification is the exception rather than the rule. Pedro Ximenez makes up about 90% of the plantings. This area also supplies PX wine to the Sherry trade. Fermentation is carried out in large traditional tinajas. Olorosos are kept in casks with no ullage.
There are two types of soil:
• Alberos: Chalky soil similar to Albariza.
• Ruedos: A reddish, compact loam.

There are three qualities of juice:
• Free-run: Fino
• First Pressing: Oloroso
• Second Pressing: Distillation
Quien origino la idea de la corrida de toros?
los romanos
Define Fino in Sherry
The lightest most delicate style of sherry fortified to 15.5%
what is crianza?
• Crianza red wines are aged for 2 years with at least 6 months in oak. Crianza whites and rosé must be aged for at least 1 year with at least 6 months in oak
construido en 50 AC< fuente de agua para la ciudadm no mortero, solamente piedras
El acueducto romano, Segovia
Styles of Sherry• Palo Cortado
o Palo Cortado: Neither a Fino nor an Oloroso. Happens by a fluke. Starts off as an Amontillado, but loses its flor early on. The style is therefore in-between. Rich, nutty, and complex. Generally dry.
Style of Toro wines
Red wines from Tina de Toro a Tempranillo clone
where is rioja located?
area that is in northern Spain around the town of Logroño and along the Ebro River.
calle que fue hecha por un rio, bajo muchos arboles, cuatro secciones diferentes, canaletes, flores, Ocells (mercado de aves), Boqueria (reja medieval, azulejos de Miro)
Las Ramblas en Barcelona
what are the 2 main grapes of sherry
palomino and pedro ximenez (PX)
Define Grandes Pagos &amp; DO Pagos
grandes pagos is a marketing group... the other is government sanctioned. DO Pago must, fairly obviously, be made from grapes from a single estate, turned into wine and bottled in a bodega on that same estate. The estates must have achieved an international reputation for quality, command a premium price and comply with the internationally recognised ISO 9001 quality assurance
List the red grape varieties in spain?
Tempranillo: Spain´s most famous and noble grape. Also known as Ull de Llebre, Cencibel, Tinto Fino. Grown in many regions including Rioja, Ribera del Duero, La Mancha and Penedes

Garnacha: known as Grenache in France &amp; America, this is the most prominent grape in Priorat

Mencia: Spain´s hot and upcoming cult grape used in Bierzo, and also in Valdeorras

Graciano: Also known as Morrastel, Courouillade in France and Xres in California

Mazuelo: Also known as Mazuelo Tinto, Cariñena, and Carignan in France

Manto Negro: the main grape in Mallorca, used to make some very interesting wines

Listan Negro: most common red grape in the Canary Island, particularly Tenerife. Main grape in top wine “Crater”

Negramoll: another red varietal from the Canary Islands, often mixed with Listan Negro

Bobal: used in the Levante to make mainly rosé wines

Cariñena: main red grape in Calatayud and Aragon in general. Carignan in France.

Monastrell: interesting red used mainly in Jumilla (Murcia) and Catalonia, makes juicy wines, Known as Mourvèdre in France.

Moristel: unusual grape found in Somontano and Aragon, makes young fruity wine
Where is priorat and what kind of soil
south west district of catalunya
poor stony and slate soil known as &quot;llicorella&quot;
Cuales tres grupos viven en La Convivencia?
los judios, los cristianos, y los musulmanes
What are the aging guidlines of priorat wines and what are the traditional reds from the region made from?
The traditional reds from El Priorat are either 100% Garnacha or a blend of Garnacha and Cariñena. Crianza wines must remain in oak barrels for 6 months and then 18 months in the bottle. Reserva wines must remain in oak barrels for 12 months and then 24 months in the bottle. Gran Reserva wines remain in oak barrels for 24 months and then 36 months in the bottle.
Few wineries (bodegas) follow these guidelines strictly, and the usual practice is to produce what is known as vino de guarda (aged wine) that has been in oak barrels for 18 months followed by 6 months in the bottle, the optimal moment for consumption being 2 years later.
What are the aging stages for Spain wine
Vino Joven less aging than required for Crianza less aging than required for Crianza

Crianza 2 years (including 6 months in cask) 1 year (including 6 months in cask)

Reserva 3 years (including 1 year in cask) 2 years (including 6 months in cask)

Gran Reserva 5 years (including 18 months in cask) 4 years (including 6 months in cask)
the regions of toro, rueda, and ribera del duero are fed by _____
a floodplain bounded by the rivers .Río Guareña and Río Duero
what is the climate of Priorat DOCa?
Even though El Priorat DOQ is a small area, there are several different micro-climates present. Generally, the climate is more extreme than most continental climate areas, though there is a marked contrast between the valleys and the higher areas. There are both freezing winds from the north (mitigated somewhat by the Montsant mountain) and also the warm Mistral wind from the east.
Summers are long, hot and dry (max temperature 35°) while winters are cold (min temperature -4°C). There is the occasional risk of frost, hailstones and drought. The average annual temperature is 15°C, and average annual rainfall is 400-600 mm.
la huerta
Cava Varieties
San Sebastian
playa famosa
gran influencia arabe
Vintage dated sherries
Who was Joan Miró?
ciudad principal de Cataluna
what does rosado mean
ciudad principal de Cataluna
Three styles of Sherry
land ruled by another country
DO de pago
single estate appelation
Main grape of red Rioja
a violent uprising againt a ruler
encomienda system
system of rewarding conqusitadors tracts of land, including the right to vote and exact labor from Native Americans.
Almacenista Sherries
Lustau commercialized this concept. These are Sherries from a private stockholder who purchases a portion of a Bodega’s production and ages it, often for 30 years or more. Always top quality, the stockholder sells it back, after aging, to the Bodega to bottle it pure and unblended, then release it. Every style of Sherry may be produced this way, and the Almacenista’s name may be on the bottle. Fractions on the label indicate the number of bottles in the solera (e.g. 1/38, 1/17, 1/10). Sometimes the Bodegas use this wine to blend into their houses for greater depth and character in the commercial blends.
En que ano empezo la Reconquista?
Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica - the equivalent to IGT in Italy and VDQS in France
Who was the famous architect from Barcelona?
La Alhambra, El Generalife, La Plaza de Isabel la Catolica, La Capilla Real
el vascuence
idioma de origen caucasico con influencias celticas
Philip II
o He was dedicated to religious wars-all the gold and silver coming from American was dedicated to this cause
o He thought that Europe should be Catholic
• Yecla DO
A small region north of Jumilla.
points about sherry Service
• Copitas is proper stemware.
• Serve dry Finos chilled (48°) and consume quickly (½ bottles).
• Serve sweet Finos and Olorosos at cellar temperature and consume with 1½ weeks (gas the bottle).
Traditional red grapes of Penedes
Ull de liebre
aromatic whites from Verdejo plus Sav Blanc &amp; Viura
Luga en Toledo que muchos artistas usaban para su influencia
Rio Tajo
Fransisco Pizarro
explored Peru and conquered the Inca empire.
Autos de Fe:
Execution of those who sympathized with Jews in
what grape acounts for 90% of vinyards in the rias baixas
Que son muladies?
espanoles que se convirtieron al islam
DOs of Galicia and Basque Country
•Rías Baixas
•Ribeira Sacra
•Getariako Txakolina
•Bizkaiko Txakolina
•Arabako Txakolina
What is the center of Cava productionr
Tarragona Penedes
what is the minimum alcohol level for rias baxias wines?
In what year was the last Moorish King ousted?
Muestra la herencia, Eventos y ceremonias, Estatua de Felipe III, Musicos, Botiques y tiendas
La Plaza Mayor, Madrid
inspiracion para sleeping beauty, del siglo doce, vivienda de los reyes
El Alacazar de Segovia
Isabel de Portugal
Married to Charles V in Sevilla Alhambra was constructed for their honeymoon
Barro soils
soils are high in clay content and give more full-bodied &amp; coarser wine
la Plaza de Cataluna
centro comercial y social de Barcelona
Vino de la Teierra - table wine of demarcated area with minimum 60% from that region
Navarra is divided into 5 subzones, what are they?
Tierra Estella
Ribera Alta
Baja Montaña
Ribera Baja
hecho por los arabes, 1734 fuego, Felipe V primer residente
El Palacio Real, Madrid
Catedral, PLaza del gobierno, casa de la ciudad, 2 museos, palacio real, mas viejo.
Barrio Gotico de Barcelona
Vino comarcal VC
wine made from a specific area, like regional vin de pays
Blending partners of Tempranillo in Rioja
Traditional blending partners are Mazuelo (Carignan), Graciano, and Garnacha
Name 2 white grapes of Rioja &amp; Navarra-
Macebeo and Malvsia
what is reserva?
• Reserva red wines are aged for at least 3 years with at least 1 year in oak. Reserva whites and rosé must be aged for at least 2 years with at least 6 months in oak.[5]
Puerta del Sol
What area of Spain is where all the major roads meet?
1198, la ultima parte que rema de la mezquita, chapiteles mas viejo en el mundo
La Giralda, Sevilla
vino de la tierra
Spanish Equivelent to vin de pays of France
How did the Baroque style spread
Ideas/forms are disseminated in an extended fashion from cultural center to peripheral provinces with modifications along the way
Availability of materials
Availability of artists/artisans
Power of memory
Simplification and creolization is end result
Center to periphery
Farther away from the center differences introduce
Marble vs. limestone
Cant find artists to work on it
No photography but limited drawings existed
Describe the climate of Rueda?
The climate is continental (long hot summers, cold winters) with a certain Atlantic influence. Temperatures vary widely and can drop below zero in winter (-1°C) and can reach 30°C in summer, which is not as high as similar wine-producing regions in southern Central Spain. There is a risk of frost, freezing fog, high winds and hailstones in winter/spring. On the other hand there is only a very small possibility of drought.
what is
Galicia &amp; Rias Baixas?
Galicia, Spain's most isolated and unique province, is in the northwest corner of the country, directly north of Portugal. Rías Baixas, Galicia's most important wine district, is in the southwest corner of the province, near the Atlantic Ocean.
what is En cabeza
vine head low to the ground to keep cool
Leaves trained to shade grapes
Grapes pick up early morning dew and remain cooler for longer
Arid and Semi-arid Climate
Primary white grapes of Spain
Airen - most iin the world
Viura - (Macabeo)
what are the grape varieties of Rueda?
The main authorised white varieties are: Verdejo, Viura, Sauvignon Blanc, while the authorised red varieties are Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Garnacha.
fue dedicada a la hermana de Isabel II, tienes muchas jardines elegantes
El Parque de Maria Luisa, Sevilla
what are the 3 sub regions of penedes
○ Bajo Penedès: The coastal area and warmest area. Good for full-bodied reds. Mostly red grapes: Monastrell, Garnacha, and Cariñena dominate.
○ Medio Penedès: Middle, hilly section. Grapes grown at altitudes of 200 meters. Essentially Cava country, but home to some very good new style reds. Mostly Macabéo and Xarel-lo planted for Cava production. Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Monastrell for reds.
○ Penedès Superior: Sometimes known as Alt Penedès. Furthest inland area. Grapes are grown on limestone soils at altitudes of 500-800 meters. Mostly white varieties: Parellada, Riesling, and Gewurztraminer, with some Pinot Noir.
Levels of aging in Rioja wines
Red crianza wines require a total two years of aging prior to release, with a minimum year in oak.

Red reserva wines are aged for three years, including one year in oak.

Gran Reserva red wines must age for at least two years in cask and three years in bottle.

Rioja casks must be 225 liters—the size of a barrique. Rioja white wines and rosados are also eligible for these categories, according to the standard system: crianza wines age for a year, reserva wines age for two years, and gran reserva wines age for four.

All three categories require a minimum six months in cask
name the 4 categoris of classification for rioja
Vino Joven – Vino de Crianza -Reserva – Gran Reserva
the best wines of the priorat are made from what 2 varietals
old vine granacha or carnena (carignan)
what kind of soil does toro have?
a mix of clayey, sandy and calcareous soils.
What are the additional aging terms used in Spanish wines
•Noble: 12 months aging in a cask of less than 600 L

•Añejo: 24 months aging in a cask of less than 600 L

•Viejo: 36 months aging in a cask of less than 600 L, demonstrates oxidative character
what is the primary grape of the rioja region? what other grapes are allowed?
TEMPRANILLO is the primary red grape used. Garnacha Tinta (GRENACHE), Mazuelo (CARIGNAN), and GRACIANO are also allowed.
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