small religious settlements
to belong to
el cid campeador
Vino de Mesa
|el capital de Espana||
Sofia de Suiza
|● Toro DO:||
Historically and currently known for full-bodied, powerful red wines made mostly from Tinta de Toro (Tempranillo) and Garnacha. Improved technology has led to better, fresher, and more approachable reds.
tumba de Cristobal Colon
|Tarragona Priorat DOCa grapes||
Spanish colony, capital Mexico
|Museo del Prado||
grandes pintores espanoles
Taos Pueblo, c. 17th century
Multi-story native dwellings of adobe built by Pueblo Peoples
Sun-dried mud “puddled” by hand
Roofs covered by vigas, or pine beams
Ladders allow access from above
large apartment complex often 3 to 5 stories
massive block like forms with appearance of decoration which gives a bold and simplistic look
adobe a mixture of clay, sand, and water shaped by hand
roofs were flat with slight slant
|Where is Tarragona Penedes||
|Jardin de la alhambra||
El Generalife, Granada
Se habla en el pais Vasco
|la mancha DO||
large central plateau
widespread plantings of airen for brandy
|Santa Cruz de Tenerife||
las Islas Canarias
|Dos Castilla y Leon||
•Ribera del Duero
•Tierra del Vino de Zamora
•Tierra de León
refective soil.. white.. best for Fino
to change a religion or a belief
|1882-2020, natividad grande, de Gaudi, la cripta||
La Sagrada Familia
Aztec leader, failed to stop the Spanish advance,
|○ Consejo Regulador??????||
: Classifies the quality of each vintage in five categories, from E (excellent) to VG, G, S (Standard), and A (Average). There has not been an ‘Average’ vintage since 1972, nor a ‘Standard’ one since 1984. Recent ‘Excellent’ vintages: 2005, 2004, 2001, 1995, 1994
centro de la industria minera del norte
Very Old Rare Sherry
Aged 30 years minimum age
In which city is the aqueduct that still brings water from the mountains?
|caminar, de coche, trafico LENTO, transpotacion publica, lineas del sistema metro, taxiz, buses, BUHOS||
transportacion de madrid
low ranking nobles who came to the Americas as conquistadors.
Although the Spanish did not find vast deposits of gold in the Americas, they did discover huge deposits of ______. Mining camps emerged all across northern Mexico.
|● Navarra DO:||
Overlaps part of the Rioja Baja region. Traditionally known for rosado made from Garnacha. Rosado still accounts for over half of production. The problem for red wines has been the reliance on Garnacha. The modern approach is more Tempranillo and some Cabernet Sauvignon. Some very good wines, similar to Rioja.
Navarra is divided into 5 districts
○ Baja Montana: Highest and wettest area. Mostly Tempranillo. Produces some of Navarra’s best rosés.
○ Ribera Alta: One of the most important districts. Reds, rosés, and whites produced.
○ Ribera Baja: Hot, dry area that overlaps the Rioja Baja district. Mostly red wines. Good quality sweet Moscatel wines.
○ Tierra Estrella: Straight-forward fruity reds and rosés.
○ Valdizarbe: Smallest of the Navarra districts. Good value reds and rosés.
|● Cariñena DO||
Hot, dry area mostly known for Garnacha-based reds. Some straight-forward whites are made from Viura and Garnacha Blanca.
|adobe brick construction||
Spanish builders adapt native adobe technology by inventing adobe bricks
Mud formed in molds
Bound with straw
Sealed with mud plaster
|Dominate white grape in Rioja||
Viura—known elsewhere as Macabéo
|Rioja is the first and only spanish ______.||
What's the name of the peninsula that Spain and Portugal share?
a large farm or ranch, often with its own village and church
|100 monumentos y edificios, debajo de Montjuic, 1929||
Pueblo espanol, Barcelon
|what is Airén||
The most planted variety in Spain according to acreage (approx. ½ million ha.)
Traditionally used for base wine for brandy production
Improved viticulture and vinification practices has led to better, refreshing but essentially simple wines
|influence of Spanish Church||
Pilgrimage Church of Santiago de Campostela, c. 1620
Highly ornate, twin-towered design
Ex of how baroque moved westward-in Spain,
Taller, not as wide, no dome, no classical façade
Surfaces completely covered
|% of Rijoa blends before experimental grapes can be added||
Together, Tempranillo, Mazuelo(Carignan), Graciano and Granacha, these four grapes must comprise a minimum 85% of the red Rioja blend, or 95% if destemmed
|Name 2 red grapes of Rioja & Navarra-||
|The vinyards in toro sit at a _______ altitude.||
|Fortaleza para los arabes, Franco uso para su militar, hoy es un museo||
El Alcazar de Toledo
|The Pago System||
Albariza land is divided into pagos or individual vineyards
Approx. 150 – some less than a hectare, some several thousand
Hotter and higher pagos tend to grow grapes that make good oloroso wines
Coastal pagos favour finos
Some vineyards names appear on the label: Añina, Balbaina, Carrascal, Macharnudo, Marti Miguel, Miraflores, Torrebreva, Los Tercios
A DO wine from the Cordoba province in southern Spain. Same styles as Sherry. Very hot area, and grapes have a very high potential alcohol. Fortification is the exception rather than the rule. Pedro Ximenez makes up about 90% of the plantings. This area also supplies PX wine to the Sherry trade. Fermentation is carried out in large traditional tinajas. Olorosos are kept in casks with no ullage.
There are two types of soil:
• Alberos: Chalky soil similar to Albariza.
• Ruedos: A reddish, compact loam.
There are three qualities of juice:
• Free-run: Fino
• First Pressing: Oloroso
• Second Pressing: Distillation
|Quien origino la idea de la corrida de toros?||
|Define Fino in Sherry||
The lightest most delicate style of sherry fortified to 15.5%
|what is crianza?||
• Crianza red wines are aged for 2 years with at least 6 months in oak. Crianza whites and rosé must be aged for at least 1 year with at least 6 months in oak
|construido en 50 AC< fuente de agua para la ciudadm no mortero, solamente piedras||
El acueducto romano, Segovia
|Styles of Sherry• Palo Cortado||
o Palo Cortado: Neither a Fino nor an Oloroso. Happens by a fluke. Starts off as an Amontillado, but loses its flor early on. The style is therefore in-between. Rich, nutty, and complex. Generally dry.
|Style of Toro wines||
Red wines from Tina de Toro a Tempranillo clone
|where is rioja located?||
area that is in northern Spain around the town of Logroño and along the Ebro River.
|calle que fue hecha por un rio, bajo muchos arboles, cuatro secciones diferentes, canaletes, flores, Ocells (mercado de aves), Boqueria (reja medieval, azulejos de Miro)||
Las Ramblas en Barcelona
|what are the 2 main grapes of sherry||
palomino and pedro ximenez (PX)
|Define Grandes Pagos & DO Pagos||
grandes pagos is a marketing group... the other is government sanctioned. DO Pago must, fairly obviously, be made from grapes from a single estate, turned into wine and bottled in a bodega on that same estate. The estates must have achieved an international reputation for quality, command a premium price and comply with the internationally recognised ISO 9001 quality assurance
|List the red grape varieties in spain?||
Tempranillo: Spain´s most famous and noble grape. Also known as Ull de Llebre, Cencibel, Tinto Fino. Grown in many regions including Rioja, Ribera del Duero, La Mancha and Penedes
Garnacha: known as Grenache in France & America, this is the most prominent grape in Priorat
Mencia: Spain´s hot and upcoming cult grape used in Bierzo, and also in Valdeorras
Graciano: Also known as Morrastel, Courouillade in France and Xres in California
Mazuelo: Also known as Mazuelo Tinto, Cariñena, and Carignan in France
Manto Negro: the main grape in Mallorca, used to make some very interesting wines
Listan Negro: most common red grape in the Canary Island, particularly Tenerife. Main grape in top wine “Crater”
Negramoll: another red varietal from the Canary Islands, often mixed with Listan Negro
Bobal: used in the Levante to make mainly rosé wines
Cariñena: main red grape in Calatayud and Aragon in general. Carignan in France.
Monastrell: interesting red used mainly in Jumilla (Murcia) and Catalonia, makes juicy wines, Known as Mourvèdre in France.
Moristel: unusual grape found in Somontano and Aragon, makes young fruity wine
|Where is priorat and what kind of soil||
south west district of catalunya
poor stony and slate soil known as "llicorella"
|Cuales tres grupos viven en La Convivencia?||
los judios, los cristianos, y los musulmanes
|What are the aging guidlines of priorat wines and what are the traditional reds from the region made from?||
The traditional reds from El Priorat are either 100% Garnacha or a blend of Garnacha and Cariñena. Crianza wines must remain in oak barrels for 6 months and then 18 months in the bottle. Reserva wines must remain in oak barrels for 12 months and then 24 months in the bottle. Gran Reserva wines remain in oak barrels for 24 months and then 36 months in the bottle.
Few wineries (bodegas) follow these guidelines strictly, and the usual practice is to produce what is known as vino de guarda (aged wine) that has been in oak barrels for 18 months followed by 6 months in the bottle, the optimal moment for consumption being 2 years later.
|What are the aging stages for Spain wine||
Vino Joven less aging than required for Crianza less aging than required for Crianza
Crianza 2 years (including 6 months in cask) 1 year (including 6 months in cask)
Reserva 3 years (including 1 year in cask) 2 years (including 6 months in cask)
Gran Reserva 5 years (including 18 months in cask) 4 years (including 6 months in cask)
|the regions of toro, rueda, and ribera del duero are fed by _____||
a floodplain bounded by the rivers .Río Guareña and Río Duero
|what is the climate of Priorat DOCa?||
Even though El Priorat DOQ is a small area, there are several different micro-climates present. Generally, the climate is more extreme than most continental climate areas, though there is a marked contrast between the valleys and the higher areas. There are both freezing winds from the north (mitigated somewhat by the Montsant mountain) and also the warm Mistral wind from the east.
Summers are long, hot and dry (max temperature 35°) while winters are cold (min temperature -4°C). There is the occasional risk of frost, hailstones and drought. The average annual temperature is 15°C, and average annual rainfall is 400-600 mm.
gran influencia arabe
Vintage dated sherries
Who was Joan Miró?
ciudad principal de Cataluna
|what does rosado mean||
ciudad principal de Cataluna
|Three styles of Sherry||
land ruled by another country
|DO de pago||
single estate appelation
|Main grape of red Rioja||
a violent uprising againt a ruler
system of rewarding conqusitadors tracts of land, including the right to vote and exact labor from Native Americans.
Lustau commercialized this concept. These are Sherries from a private stockholder who purchases a portion of a Bodega’s production and ages it, often for 30 years or more. Always top quality, the stockholder sells it back, after aging, to the Bodega to bottle it pure and unblended, then release it. Every style of Sherry may be produced this way, and the Almacenista’s name may be on the bottle. Fractions on the label indicate the number of bottles in the solera (e.g. 1/38, 1/17, 1/10). Sometimes the Bodegas use this wine to blend into their houses for greater depth and character in the commercial blends.
|En que ano empezo la Reconquista?||
Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica - the equivalent to IGT in Italy and VDQS in France
Who was the famous architect from Barcelona?
|La Alhambra, El Generalife, La Plaza de Isabel la Catolica, La Capilla Real||
idioma de origen caucasico con influencias celticas
o He was dedicated to religious wars-all the gold and silver coming from American was dedicated to this cause
o He thought that Europe should be Catholic
|• Yecla DO||
A small region north of Jumilla.
|points about sherry Service||
• Copitas is proper stemware.
• Serve dry Finos chilled (48°) and consume quickly (½ bottles).
• Serve sweet Finos and Olorosos at cellar temperature and consume with 1½ weeks (gas the bottle).
|Traditional red grapes of Penedes||
Ull de liebre
aromatic whites from Verdejo plus Sav Blanc & Viura
|Luga en Toledo que muchos artistas usaban para su influencia||
explored Peru and conquered the Inca empire.
|Autos de Fe:||
Execution of those who sympathized with Jews in
|what grape acounts for 90% of vinyards in the rias baixas||
|Que son muladies?||
espanoles que se convirtieron al islam
|DOs of Galicia and Basque Country||
|What is the center of Cava productionr||
|what is the minimum alcohol level for rias baxias wines?||
In what year was the last Moorish King ousted?
|Muestra la herencia, Eventos y ceremonias, Estatua de Felipe III, Musicos, Botiques y tiendas||
La Plaza Mayor, Madrid
|inspiracion para sleeping beauty, del siglo doce, vivienda de los reyes||
El Alacazar de Segovia
|Isabel de Portugal||
Married to Charles V in Sevilla Alhambra was constructed for their honeymoon
soils are high in clay content and give more full-bodied & coarser wine
|la Plaza de Cataluna||
centro comercial y social de Barcelona
Vino de la Teierra - table wine of demarcated area with minimum 60% from that region
|Navarra is divided into 5 subzones, what are they?||
|hecho por los arabes, 1734 fuego, Felipe V primer residente||
El Palacio Real, Madrid
|Catedral, PLaza del gobierno, casa de la ciudad, 2 museos, palacio real, mas viejo.||
Barrio Gotico de Barcelona
|Vino comarcal VC||
wine made from a specific area, like regional vin de pays
|Blending partners of Tempranillo in Rioja||
Traditional blending partners are Mazuelo (Carignan), Graciano, and Garnacha
|Name 2 white grapes of Rioja & Navarra-||
Macebeo and Malvsia
|what is reserva?||
• Reserva red wines are aged for at least 3 years with at least 1 year in oak. Reserva whites and rosé must be aged for at least 2 years with at least 6 months in oak.
|Puerta del Sol||
What area of Spain is where all the major roads meet?
|1198, la ultima parte que rema de la mezquita, chapiteles mas viejo en el mundo||
La Giralda, Sevilla
|vino de la tierra||
Spanish Equivelent to vin de pays of France
|How did the Baroque style spread||
Ideas/forms are disseminated in an extended fashion from cultural center to peripheral provinces with modifications along the way
Availability of materials
Availability of artists/artisans
Power of memory
Simplification and creolization is end result
Center to periphery
Farther away from the center differences introduce
Marble vs. limestone
Cant find artists to work on it
No photography but limited drawings existed
|Describe the climate of Rueda?||
The climate is continental (long hot summers, cold winters) with a certain Atlantic influence. Temperatures vary widely and can drop below zero in winter (-1°C) and can reach 30°C in summer, which is not as high as similar wine-producing regions in southern Central Spain. There is a risk of frost, freezing fog, high winds and hailstones in winter/spring. On the other hand there is only a very small possibility of drought.
Galicia & Rias Baixas?
Galicia, Spain's most isolated and unique province, is in the northwest corner of the country, directly north of Portugal. Rías Baixas, Galicia's most important wine district, is in the southwest corner of the province, near the Atlantic Ocean.
|what is En cabeza||
vine head low to the ground to keep cool
Leaves trained to shade grapes
Grapes pick up early morning dew and remain cooler for longer
Arid and Semi-arid Climate
|Primary white grapes of Spain||
Airen - most iin the world
Viura - (Macabeo)
|what are the grape varieties of Rueda?||
The main authorised white varieties are: Verdejo, Viura, Sauvignon Blanc, while the authorised red varieties are Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Garnacha.
|fue dedicada a la hermana de Isabel II, tienes muchas jardines elegantes||
El Parque de Maria Luisa, Sevilla
|what are the 3 sub regions of penedes||
○ Bajo Penedès: The coastal area and warmest area. Good for full-bodied reds. Mostly red grapes: Monastrell, Garnacha, and Cariñena dominate.
○ Medio Penedès: Middle, hilly section. Grapes grown at altitudes of 200 meters. Essentially Cava country, but home to some very good new style reds. Mostly Macabéo and Xarel-lo planted for Cava production. Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Monastrell for reds.
○ Penedès Superior: Sometimes known as Alt Penedès. Furthest inland area. Grapes are grown on limestone soils at altitudes of 500-800 meters. Mostly white varieties: Parellada, Riesling, and Gewurztraminer, with some Pinot Noir.
|Levels of aging in Rioja wines||
Red crianza wines require a total two years of aging prior to release, with a minimum year in oak.
Red reserva wines are aged for three years, including one year in oak.
Gran Reserva red wines must age for at least two years in cask and three years in bottle.
Rioja casks must be 225 liters—the size of a barrique. Rioja white wines and rosados are also eligible for these categories, according to the standard system: crianza wines age for a year, reserva wines age for two years, and gran reserva wines age for four.
All three categories require a minimum six months in cask
|name the 4 categoris of classification for rioja||
Vino Joven – Vino de Crianza -Reserva – Gran Reserva
|the best wines of the priorat are made from what 2 varietals||
old vine granacha or carnena (carignan)
|what kind of soil does toro have?||
a mix of clayey, sandy and calcareous soils.
|What are the additional aging terms used in Spanish wines||
•Noble: 12 months aging in a cask of less than 600 L
•Añejo: 24 months aging in a cask of less than 600 L
•Viejo: 36 months aging in a cask of less than 600 L, demonstrates oxidative character
|what is the primary grape of the rioja region? what other grapes are allowed?||
TEMPRANILLO is the primary red grape used. Garnacha Tinta (GRENACHE), Mazuelo (CARIGNAN), and GRACIANO are also allowed.