a&p Flashcards

Terms Definitions
platelets-blood clotting
thick filaments
glans penis
Respond to chemicals.
Pectoralis minor
Ribs 3-5
(Consists of)
sodiumExamples:Hypernatremia = an abnormally high level of sodium in the bloodstreamHyponatremia = an abnormally low level of sodium in the blood
caudal vertebrae (#)
~ 20
Olecranon process of ulna
2 layers of retina
toward the opposite side
Dense irr CT
surrounds whole skeletal muscle
outer layer(superficial)
study of ligaments and joints
Urinary System
Absorption and Excretion-kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
the digestive juice produce containing enzymes capable of digesting all food stuff categories is
bone located in the lacunea
internal intercostals
superior border of rib
inferior border of the previous rib
Enter your back text here.
Building block of nucleic acids; consists of a sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate group.
What term is analogous to Cephalic?
Osmosis involves (3)....
1. Differentially permeable membrane
2. difference in solvent concentration
3. Diffusion
nervous tissue
consists of neurons and neuroglia
neuron components: body, dendrite, axon

functions to
sense stimuli
convert stimuli into nerve impulses
conduct nerve impulses to other neurons. muscle fibers or glands

HIV-infected microglia form ----------------------- in the CNS
multinucleated giant cells
carries deoxygenated blood from the capillaries to the veins
inferior obliqueon bottom left. eye looks down and laterally
Somites first differentiate into
Sclerotomes an Dermamyotomes.
includes all activites promoted by muscular system
Trigeminal Nerve- motor and sensory nerve *V1*-Opthalmic (cornea, nose, forhead, scalp) *V2* - Maxillary (nasal mucosa, palate, gums cheek) *V3* Mandibular (sensory for front of tongue, skin of chin, mandible, ear & chewing)
aortic bodies, carotid bodies, detect blood levels of O2, CO2, and H
sigmoid colon
The descending colon terminates by becoming the....
Sacral PlexusSpinal nerves?Innervates?
Spinal nerves L4-S3
INnervates the buttocks and the rest of the lower limbs
A characteristic of the living human organism.The process a cell undergoes to develop from an unspecified state to a specialized state.ex: stem cells are "ancestor cells" which can divide and give rise to progeny that undergo changes to specialized states
thromboxane A2
during the platelet release reaction, the prostaglandin ______ activates platelets and acts as a vasoconstrictor.
close to skin surface/far from skin surface
What sinus drains above the superior meatus?
Thin Filament Structure

Subunit is globular actin (G)
Attached in a long polypeptide chain (F actin)
F actin folds back on itself to make a twisted double strand
Stiffened by 2 strands of tropomyosin
In a relaxed  muscle tropomyosin blocks active sites of actin
Anterior margin of the cheeks (opening of cheeks) the muscle that is obiquiaris
The lips
Is the digestive system involved in excretion
pericardial cavity
heart is located here.
anterior chest wall, posterior to sternum between the 2 pleural cavities in the mediastinum
Most absorption of food into the circulatory and lymphatic systems occurs in the
rod-like shaped bodies that lie at right angles to each other close to the nucleus
the knobby surface landmark of the ankle
a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse, an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane o
free radical
has unpaired electron in valence, unstable, reactive
The papillary muscles are found in the make-up of the...
IN living persons, the sacral hiatus is closed by the ____.
sacrococcygeal ligament
What nerve innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye?
Abducent (CN VI)
pituitary gland; hypothalamus
infundibulum is a stalklike structure that attaches the ______ to the _______.
shrinking of tissue due to loss in cell size/number
normal aging
not using organ
Gastrosplenic and Gastrocolic ligaments
Gastrosplenic ligament connects spleen to stomach Gastrocolic ligament connects stomach to colon
What part of the external genitalia meets superiorly to form foreskin of clitoris?
Labia minora
takes deoxygenated blood from the lower body and returns it to the right atrium
First-Degree Burns
involve only the epidermis and is marked by redness, slight edema, and pain
Which of the following is NOT an extrinsic salivary gland?
Mechanism for Elastin Breakdown
Neutrophil secretes Elastase (breaks down elastin in lung) and H202, H202 combines with N of smoke to destroy alpha1antitrypisn (protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells), inhibition of repair of elastin
Which lobes are responsible for the sensations of touch, pain, and taste?
parietal lobe
a small platelike body, esp. a blood platelet.
What are platelets?
fragments of cells that are important in the clotting process
food does not come into body in a useful form. 
Body breaks it down in a form that it can use. 
the digestive system is a group of organs that take in food and convert it into a form that cells can use.
covalent bond
A bond in which atoms share valence electrons.
Closed Chain
a segment where the distal end is fixed or in contact with the ground
Oxygen _____blood in _____ vessels has a darker color and gives the skin a bluish color known as _____.
depleted; dermal; cyanosis
Each testis contains about how much tubing?
one half mile
Origins/Insertions/Actions of muscles
Origins and insetions are the point on the skeleton where the tendon of a muscle attaches to the skeleton. Origins are usually proximal to insertions.Actions-Sarcomeres contract to pull the insertions closer to the origin.
O: Distal FibulaI: Tendon to prox 5th MetatarsalA: Plantar flex, evertsInn: Fibular n. (superficial)
Tibialis Anterior
what does the body of the thoracic cage attach to?
ribs 2-7
gross anatomy
the branch of anatomy that deals with structures that can be seen with the naked eye.
what are venules?
have no smooth muscle; "leaky" site of fluid & WBC release into tissue
Name the strutures of the external ear:
1) Auricle/pinna
2) Concha
3) External auditory meatus
What does mesoderm turn into during embryogenesis?
embryonic connective tissue (mesenchyme)
a rate of blood flow to an organ that is inadequate to supply sufficient oxygen and maintain aerobic respiration in that organ
how is the ventral cavity divided
superior thoracic cavity, inferior abdominopelvic cavity
What is the peritoneum?
a serous membrane associated with the abdominopelvic cavity.
ligamenta flava a ligament formed predominantly by elastic fibers which joins the laminae of adjacent vertebrae
a syndesmosis; paired; the ligamentum flavum is penetrated by the needle during spinal tap; the word flavum is derived from the Latin word flavus, which means "yellow" - a reference to the predominance of yellow elastic fibers which gives this l
homeostatsis is the condition in which the body maintains
a relatively stable internal enviornment
4 parts of the uterine tubes
Uterine part: opens into uterine ostium
Isthmus: thick wall, narrow tube
Ampulla: major part of the uterine tube - site of fertilization and ectopic tubal pregnancy
Infundibulum: opening of tube into abdominal ostium and site of fibriae (finger-like processes that captures the oocytes)
Waht is normal, high, low blood pressure? What is the units?
High- 140/100 mmHgNormal 120/80 mmHgLow 100/60 mmHg
motor unit in ANS contains how many motor neurons?
post and pre ganglionic
What is the angle of anteversion?
An angle (about 45 degrees) between neck and shaft of femur where neck emerges from medial side of shaft anteromedially.
Why are all atoms eletrically neutral?
bc the number of protons and electrons are normally equally
Cranial Nerves VIII: Vestibulochlear (auditory)
-The ONLY cranial nerve that does not exit cranium through a foramen
-Arises from both pons and medulla
-Has 2 main branches
Vestibular nerve = balance (damage to it causes dizziness, imbalance)
Cochlear nerve = hearing (damage causes sensory deafness)
what do the blood vessels do?
warm & humidify air as it enters respiratory system
What 3 steps do steroid hormones use to trigger changes in the cells?
1. diffuse through the plasma membranes of their target cells. 2. enters nucleus. 3. binds to a specific receptor protein there. 4. binds to specific sites on the cells DNA. 5. activating certain genes to transcribe messanger RNA. 6. translated in the cytoplasm.
which layer of the scalp is the dangerous layer?
the loose areolar tissue layer because of the presence of emissary veins, which drain into the dural and cavernous sinuses- osteomyelitis and acute meningitis
Sour is recognized on what part of the tongue
The sides and mid portion of the tongue
pectoral girdle
to shine
sexual intercourse
follicle cells
surround oocyte
Define poikilocytosis
Varying shapes
manubrium, body, xiphoid
tossing baton
-shoulder abduction-middle deltoid-supraspinatis (rotator cuff)
Refers to the lungs
tubos (m), trompas (f)
External spermatic fascia
from EOM
12 finger widths apart
compressible, absorbs and loses fluidabsorb shock, assure no friction between the bones and facilitate the movements of the vertebral column
hypermobility or increased joint movement. SEE ALSO: instability
What section of the vertabrae does this belong to?


irregular breathing pattern characterized by a series of shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and then decrease-followed by apnea of 10 - 60 seconds and then repeats
cartilage between intervertebral disks:
D) fibrocartilage
cranial cavity
formed by the crnaial bones
lining the urinary bladder separates underlying cells of the bladder wall from urine
Ventral Body Cavity
Houses the viscera(internal organs)
the hoe you love so much
Taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue
Another way to express the concentration of a solution of a solution in terms of (1)
inflamation of the glomerulus that develops in response to streptococcal infection, large amounts of albumin and other proteins are lost in the urine
structure of the pancreas
head-near duodenum
tail-near spleen
ability to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated
tensor fasciae latae
abduct thigh
iliac crest/iliac spine
iliotibial tract
the molecular force between particles within a body or substance that acts to unite them.
cerebellar peduncles
Enter your back text here.
Which os the following arteries is most closely associated with the left ventricle of the heart?
Biceps brachii
Origin: Short head: coracoid process of scapula
Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Insertion: Tuberosity of radius
Action: Flexes elbow and supinates forearm; flexes humerus
Innervation:Musculotaneous Nerve
A positively charged ion which has given up a valence electron.
CNV: (opthalmic) efferent/afferent, foramen, structures, clinical
V1somatic afferentorbital fissureskin of face via lacrimal, frontal, infratrochlear (med canthus)corneal reflex, check depth anesthesia
glands are enclosed in these fibrous capsules
Skeletal System
support and movement-bones and joints (ligaments and cartilages)
B cells function as antigen presenting cells (APC) via ------------
What erector spinae muscle inserts into the mastoid process?
Longissimus capitus
Stratum Spitosum
Several layers keratincytes in early stages keratin production
The mentalis muscle originates on the chin and goes into the orbicularis oris muscle. It elevates and protrudes the lower lip. Basically it allows for pouting.
vasa vasorum
network that supplies the tunica externa and media
Respiratory Filtering Structures
Conchae, cilia, alveolar macrophages, secretory IGA
Basal Ganglia
-located in white matter
-help control movements
-NOT the same as ganglia in PNS
a glandular organ functioning in the secretion of bile and metabolic processes such as converting sugars located in the upper right abdominal cavity
plasma solutes-lipid soluble
oxygen, carbon dioxide, steroid hormones
In relation to the lungs, the heart lies...
glial cells of the CNS that wrap around neuron fibers forming myelin sheaths
consistency of ATP
Consists of 3 phosphate groups attached to an adenosine unit composed of adenine and ribose (a 5-carbon sugar).
herniated/slipped disk
- rupture in the fibrous 'jelly'-space between ribs decreases-forman shrinks; pinches nerve
Transversus Thoracis : Insertion
Costal cartilage of ribs 2-6
T independent
-get vigours antibodies response w/o t helper cells
NAMEis a person was studying the kidneys, lungs, and heart, what anatomy are they most likely studying?
gross anatomy
The posterior wall of the oral hood is defined by a diaphragm called the _
pyloric sphincter
guards the connection of the pylorus and duodenum which functions to prevent backflow
What is the gonadotropic?
Hormones that regulate hormonal activity of the gonads.
survival needs
factors that are required to survive like nutrients, oxygen, water and proper temperature and atmospheric pressure
which chambers are more MUSCULAR? discharging or receiving?
DISCHARGING ventricle chambers
a cord or band of dense, tough, inelastic, white, fibrous tissue, serving to connect a muscle with a bone or part; sinew
What is the vascularization and innervation of the pericardium?
innervation: phrenic nervevasc.: pericardiophrenic vessels
what is contained in the subarachnoid space?
CSF, cerebrospinal fluid
Sympathetic nervous system
Preganglionic - in lateral horn in T1-L2; axons leave in ventral roots and enter T1-L2 spinal nerves; leave nerves in white rami communicans (myelinated) and enter sympathetic chain ganglia; synapse and re-enter spinal nerves as gray rami communicans. Some pass through ganglia without synapsing and leave ganglia as thoracic and lumbar splanchnic nerves on the way to abdominal and pelvic ganglia.
The ones from above and below T1 and L2 travel in sympathetic chain until they reach cervical, lower lumbar and sacral ganglia; no white rami at these levels.
Thus there are 14 white rami communicans and 31 gray rami communicans  
spina bifida
falure of vertebral arches to form or fuse *folic acid prevents this
Attachments, innervations, and actions of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg
Tibialis anterior: proximally, broadly attached to tibia and distally attached to medial cuneiform and base of the 1st metatarsal. Dorsiflexes and inverts the foot.
Extensor hallucis longus: proximally attached to tibia and a little bit of the fibula and interosseous membrane, and distally attached to the great phalynx. Extends the toe and dorsiflexes the foot.
Extensor digitorum longus: proximally attached to lateral condyle of the tibia and interosseous membrane, distally attached to the 4 lateral toes w/ 4 tendons. Extends the toes and dorsiflexes the foot
Fibularis tertius: proximally attached to inferolateral surface of the fibula, distally attached to anterior surface of the 5th metatarsal. Assists w/ dorsiflexion and eversion.
extensor digitorum brevus
O- anterior surface of the upper calcaneusI- tendons of the extensor digitorum longus (a tendon also goes into prox. phalanx of the big toe called extensor hallicus longus)A- extends MTP joints 1-4N- deep peroneal
All bones of the upper and lower limbs, the shoulder and pelvic girdles.126 separate bones
appendicular skeleton
Which of the following is NOT attributed to the hypothalamus?
regulation of respiration
cochlear duct (scala media)
the membranous labyrinth that runs through the cochlea
the fold or hollow on either side of the front of the body where the thigh joins the abdomen
Fibular or peroneal
Pertaining to the lateral side of the leg
the chromatids making up each chromosome separate resulting in 2 daughter cells each containing 23 chromosomes but half the DNA
during the 2nd meiotic division
Disorders of the Appendicular Skeleton
Bone fractures
Hip dyplasia  (head of the femur slips out of place)
Clubfoot  (soles of the feet turn inward)
Most atoms w only (1) valence shells tend to be electropostive
one or two
Peripheral Nervous System
The portion of the nervous system that includes all the nerves and neurons outside the brain and spinal cord.
The ear is divided into three distinct anatomic regions
1.External ear
2.Middle ear
3.Internal ear
Anterior surface of heart, what do we see
 centrally- right ventricle
right-  right atrium, right auricle
left-left ventricle, left auricle
*cant see the left atrium(only see this posteiorly)
Tissue level
a tissue is a group of cells that work together to perform a common function
The 3 ureteric constrictions (potential sites of obstruction by kidney stones)
Dermatomes of referred pain associated w/ kidney stones
1. Junction w/ renal pelvis
2. Brim of pelvic inlet
3. Bladder wall
T11-L2 ("loin to groin")
stimulation of the sensory receptor...
must happen in feel of receptor-might stimulate different sensory receptor
posterior talofibular ligament a ligament that connects the lateral malleolus of the fibula with the posterolateral surface of the talus
it is a ligament that reinforces the ankle joint
Wolff's law is concerned with...
the thickness and shape of a bone being determined by mechanical and gravitational stresses placed on it.
Name for the 1st part of the LI - 2nd widest part of the GI tract next to the stomach - found in the lower rt quadrant
The cecum
What items do not get absorbed in the large intestines?
H20 and vitamin K
Where does the parotic duct open?
Opens in mouth lateral to 2nd upper molar tooth
the head of the huerus articulates with the ________________ of which bone?
the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula.
it forms the shoulder joint.
Why purpose does the large SA:V ratio serve in an rbc?
easy gas exchange of O2 and CO2
You should keep this in mind when examining the atomic weight of an element
there are more than one type of atom representing each element (there are structural variations)
these are called isotops
atomic weight reflects natural isotope variation
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