A&P - Cell Membrane Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
coded genetic information
vesicles that store enzymes
proteins have
a unique orientation
Concentration Gradient
difference in ion/molecule concentrations between two regions. ALL LIFE WANTS TO BE IN EQUILIBRIUM
cytoplasm not contained within membrane-bound organelles
membrane carbohydrate
has glycocalax cell coat
solubilized by detergents. Includes transmembrane, monolayer associated and lipid-linked proteins. solubilizing lipid bilayer
special diffusion: diffusion over a WATER concentration gradient
Ratio of water to solvent
Volume of water!!
network of protein fibers; holds organelles in place; gives cell its shape; participates in cell movement
main energy source for living things
artificial liposomes
are used to encapsulate medicine
membrane surrounding the nucleus, contains the nuclear pores that control what enters or leaves the nucleus
nuclear membrane
a saclike enlargement of the alimentary canal, as in humans and certain animals, forming an organ for storing, diluting, and digesting food.
the solution outside the cell is hypertonic, means that theconcentration of solutes is lower inside the cell, therefore water leaves the cell and thecell shrinks.
breaks down damaged and worn out organelles
rough ER
ribosomes on cytoplasmic side of membrane; synthesizes and modifies recently synthesized proteins
what are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
membrane fluidity
enables membrane proteins to diffuse rapidly in the plane of the bilayer. Interact with one another (proteins)
tiny particles made of DNA and protein, functions in the assembly of proteins
have a greater surface area to-volume-ration than larger cells
Smaller Cells
the transport of solid matter or liquid into a cell by means of a coated vacuole or vesicle (
"cell drinking" - cell taking in small amounts of water and solutes (think pino noir - sip!)
simple diffusion
random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
what is an atom?
the smallest unit of matter
connects spectrin to band 3 and band 4.1 connects glycophorin to a complex of spectrin and actin
separates and protects the cell from its outer surroundings
cell membrane
a muscular duct or tube conveying the urine from a kidney to the bladder or cloaca.
cell theory
1.all organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. cells are fundamental units of organization of all organisms.
3.all cells come from other cells
Fluorescence Recovery after photobleaching experiments
glycoproteins move 50 times slower than lipid molecules
located on the outside of the cell membrane, found in plants, algae, and bacteria
cell wall
Frye and Edidin heterocaryon experiment
showed that embedded proteins could move from place to place on the cell membrane
- proteins are made of either polar of non-polar amino acids- non-polar are attracted to the interior or the lipid bilayer- polar are attracted to the water on both sides- so the opposing attractions hold the protein in the membrane
membrane proteins
what are the four major organic compounds?
carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acids
what is an element?
a substance made of two or more same atoms
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