Speech Science Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
airway valve
larynx
damping
decrease of amplitude
Ohm's Law
E=IR, I=E/R, R=E/I
High Pass
holds back lower frequencies
Exhalation is always ________ pressure
positive
visceral pleura
pulmonary pleura

lubricated membrane lining each lung
supersonic
Frequencies above 20,000 Hz

humans are incapable of hearing
Voltage
pushing force, similar to water pressure
What are harmonics?
Integer multiples of F0
cgs system
system of measurement using centimeters, grams, and seconds. Dynes is in this system
Spectrum
graph with frequency along the horizongal axis and amplitude along the vertical axis

can be a line spectrum or a continuous spectrum
there is a(n) __________ relationship between air pressure and density
proportional
The surface tension pressure between the two pleurae is always _____ than alveolar pressure
less
Wide Band
type of analysis bandwidth, gives clear temporal detail, so the frequency resolution is poor. A 300 Hz bandwidth is an example of this, you can see the vertical striations which are glottal pulses, and accurate time measurements possible
tonotopic organization
spatial organization of the basilar membrane in terms of frequency distribution
harmonics
frequencies above Fo in a complex periodic sounds
line spectrum
displays the frequency content of periodic sounds
subsonic
Frequencies below 20 Hz

humans are incapable of hearing
negative pressure
pressure that is lower than atmospheric pressure
ambient pressure
the relatively constant pressure that is around us at any particular place or time
Treatment for people with CP
Strengthening respiratory muscles

Posture supports (positioning, abdominal trussing)
Speech Spectrogram
x-axis is time, y-axis is frequency, darkness indicates intensity, which means spectrograms are almost 3 dimensional
Electrical Current
flow of electrons, similar to water flowing through a pipe
What happens to harmonics as F0 increases?
They spread
broadly tuned
resonator that transmits a wide range of frequencies
inertia
tendency of matter to remain at rest or in motion uless acted on by an outside force
How the VIII cranial nereve travels to the Auditory Complex
cochlea->
Relaxation pressures
Air pressures generated by the recoil forces (due to passive forces alone)

Varies throughout the lung volumes
Pressure gradient
Air flows from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure

A unidirectional phenomenon
Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography
RIP

A way to monitor respiratory activity without physical connection to the airway

2 coils enclosed in bands and are worn around the rib cage and the abdomen

Estimates lung volume
temperature plays a more important role in speed of sound in _______ than in _______ and _______
gases, liquids, solids
driving pressure
difference in air pressure that causes air to flow from higher to lower pressure
simple harmonic motion
regular, smooth, back and forth movement

produces a pure tone sound wave
Why use a band reject filter?
to remove unwanted noise
Source-Filter Model
larynx is the source, vocal tract is the filter. In theory, they are independent of each other.
aperiodic
wave in which cycles do not take the same amount of time to occur
periodic complex sounds
made up of the fundamental frequency (lowest) and the harmonics
What are the lung volumes?
tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume
Lung volume
amount of air in the lungs

measured in l, ml, cc or %VC
What are some medical and clinical conditions that affect speech breathing?
Parkinson's Disease
Cerebellar Disease
Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
Cerebral Palsy
Mechanical Ventilation
Voice Disorders
Hearing Impairment
What characteristics of an object determine frequency?
Length, mass and tension
What are the 4 respiratory features that are important for speech production?
pressure

volume

flow

chest wall shape
the basic nature of sound consists of alternating increases and decreases in __________
ambient pressure
When linked together, the lungs are __________ and the thorax is __________.
somewhat expanded

somewhat compressed
What percentage of our vital capacity do we inhale to during conversational speech?
Up to 60%
Vocal Tract transfer function
input comes from the larynx, output from the lips, resonating cavities in between determine the transfer function
Where does decussation take place in the Brain Stem for the auditory fibres
between Pons and Medulla
Typical speech patterns in people with Parkinson's Disease
Monotonous speech, distorted articulation, breathy, weak voice (intensity affected)
What happens in the alveoli?
Oxygen is exchanged with carbon dioxide
Functional Residual Capacity
Amount of air remaining in the lungs and airways at the REL

Combines ERV and RV
Development of lung volumes and capacities
Increase from infancy through puberty

Adult values apparent by age 16

Values stay stable until the later adult years

Volumes and capacities start to decrease with advancing age
What are the two branches that extend downward off of the trachea called? What are the subsequent divisions?
mainstem bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary bronchi
terminal bronchioles
respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveoli
What influences prephonatory chest wall movements?
The length of the upcoming utterance

The person's lung volume when speech is initiated
3 Types of Speech Measurement
Transducer - Signal Conditioning and Processing - Output
What is the relationship between frequency and pitch?
Frequency is measured in cycles/sec and is a physical measurement. Pitch is the psychoacoustical interpretation of frequency.
What is a spirometer?
A way to measure and record lung volumes and capacities.
Total Lung Capacity
Total amount of air that the lungs are capable of holding

Combines TV, IRV, ERV and RV
Techniques for people with voice disorders
Pushing technique: work on closing vocal folds more strongly

Yawn-sigh technique: For people who close their vocal folds too tightly
volume velocity
the rate of flow (how fast the gas is flowing) in a certain direction
What 4 things can affect the behavior of sound coming from the larynx?
Loudness, pitch, voice quality, phonation
Typical speech breathing patterns of elderly people (in relation to young adults)
Most changes are associated with the changing structures due to aging

- Don't start talking until later in exhalation, so they may run out of air in the middle and they lose the ability to use relaxation pressure
- Need to take in breaths more frequently
- Inhale to a slightly higher lung volume
- Slower speech
- More air flow during speech (per syllable)
- Loudness may be reduced
How are the measurements of lung volumes and capacities expressed?
cubic centimeters (cc or cm^3)

liters (l)

milliliters (ml)
Why do we need to achieve pulsatile variations in respiratory driving pressure during connected speech?
To make prosodic adjustments, especially for stress
How do linguistic considerations influence speech breathing patterns?
We control the amount of air inhaled, timing and rate of exhalation based on length of the utterance, clause boundaries and stress patterns
Explain the source-filter theory of speech production
The larynx serves as the source of sound and speech is filtered through the vocal tract
What is evident with a line spectrum and what is not?
Frequency and amount of acoustic energy (amplitude) at each frequency are evident

Time is not evident
What is different regarding location of air intake between breathing for speech and breathing for life?
Speech: We breathe through the mouth - it is more efficient and we can get more air, faster

Life: We tend to breathe more through the nose - cilia and mucous membrane cleans, filters, warms and moistens the air
Typical speech patterns in people with Cerebellar Disease
Inability to make fine adjustments to frequency and intensity necessary for stress and emphasis

Speech is slow, almost robotic

Utterances may be initiated below normal starting lung levels
What are examples of positive active forces?
active work done by the internal intercostals and abdominals
What happens to the thoracic cavity when the diaphragm contracts?
The volume of the cavity is increased in a vertical direction
Compare the functions of the ear canal and the TM
Ear canal: protects middle ear. is 1/4 wave resonator, important in sound detection, boosts amplitute of high frequency sounds.

TM: transduces sound energy to mechanical energy
How does the loudness of the intended utterance influence speech breathing patterns?
In order to speak more loudly, we need to allow more air to flow out per syllable. We must inhale faster and to larger lung volumes to take advantage of a higher positive relaxation pressure.
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