breathing for speech
|During nonspeech, quiet breathing above REL, expiration is usually _____________||
amount of air in lungs/airways
|What is the average inspiratory Reserve volume for males/females?||
aka pulmonary pleura. Lubricated membrane covering the LUNGS
Inspiratory Reserve Volume. The amount of air that can be inhaled beyond that inhaled in a tidal volume cycle.
upper cavity, contains lungs and respiratory passageways (aka respiratory system)
two or more lung volumes
force generated by the respiratory process, which forms the power supply for speech
floor of thoracic cavity. Dome-shaped. When relaxed it is an inverted bowl shape, when it is contracted it flattens out and increase volume in a vertical direction.
|What is the average TLC for males/females?||
substance in the alveoli that keeps them inflated by lower surface tension of the walls
Resting Exhalatory Level- the point in the respiratory cycle where pressure in the lungs equals atmospheric pressure and the forces to compress and expand the lungs are equal. This points occurs at the end of exhalation and before inhalation during quiet breathing.
|What is the average VC for males/females? (in L)||
air flows from regions of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Only in one direction.
|The exhaled airstream serves as __________ for speech sound generation||
the power supply
PV=K, there is an inverse relationship between pressure and volume
look at how structures are moving- chest wall- during breathing for speech
|What are the two functions for respiration?||
|What structure divides the torso into upper and lower cavities?||
|What do we add to get FRC?||
ERV and RV
how we measure pressure to see if a person has sufficient RDP for speech
|what is the bronchial tree?||
the trachea, bronci and bronchioles.
|What % of VC do children use during speech breathing?||
|At high lung volumes there is a __________ alveolar pressure||
|What is RV?||
Residual Volume. The amount of air that remains in the lungs and airways after maximum exhalation.
|At lung volumes above 38% of VC relaxation pressure is always _______. Passive forces are ____________. Air flows __________.||
positive, exhalation, out
|what is another name for the cavity formed by the thoracic cage?||
the pleural cavity
|What is considered a high lung volume?||
above 55% of VC
|what is the chest wall system?||
the rib cage, abdomen, diaphragm.
|What percentage of VC do we use during normal speech?||
20-25% of VC
|What are the exhalatory muscles of respiration?||
abdominal muslces and internal intercostals
|How do you calculate ERV?||
Calculate the difference in mL from the end-tidal expiratory point immediately preceding the VC curve to the peak end-expiratory point on the VC curve.
|What are the factors that influence Speech Breathing Patters?||
- linguistic considerations (stress, length of utterance)
- speaking task complexity
- clause boundaries
- loudness of intended utterance
- type of phoneme
|What do we add to get VC?||
TV + IRV + ERV
|At lung volumes below 38% of VC, the relaxation pressure is _________. The passive forces are ___________ and air flows __________.||
negative, inhalatory, in
|How do we calculate VC?||
calculate the difference in mL from the peak end-inspiratory point to the peak end-expiratory point on the VC curve.
|What are the passive forces of inspiration?||
gravity (if upright), elastic recoil and torque of ribcage and low lung volume (esp when below REL)
|How do you calculate IRV?||
Calculate the diff in mL from the end-tidal inspiratory point immediately preceding the VC curve to the peak end-inspiratory point on the VC curve.
|wet spirometer- how does it work?||
individual breathes into a tube, water is displaced and the amount of displacement is measured
|The function of respiration for speech?||
the exhaled airstream serves as the power supply for speech sound generation.
|Do you use exhalatory muscles before you reach REL?||
yes, you still have positive pressure but not enough positive pressure
|What happens when people wait longer to speak after they have begin exhaling? What population is this typical of?||
They lose they initial advantage of relaxation pressure. This might make them compensate by inhaling to slightly deeper volumes when they talk. Typically elderly do this.
|What is the surface of the pleura covered with?||
a thin layer of lubricating fluid
|the visceral and parietal pleurae form ________||
a double walled sac encasing the lungs
|At high lung volumes both the lungs and the chest wall do what?||
they recoil to a smaller size
|How is children's breathing for speech different from adults?||
- spend more time below REL
- inhale up to about 65% of VC, get below REL, talk down to about 30%
- use more airflow for speech
- use more effort when speaking
- less efficient berathing, more air flow wasted
- insert more fillers, talk at a slower rate
|How do the elderly breathe differently from younger adults?||
- wait longer to initiate speech, so use up more air before initiating utterance
- inhale for a slightly deeper lung volume before they talk
- slower speech
- speech less precise
- inhale more frequently
- more air used per syllable
|How is the torso divided? By what?||
into upper and lower cavities by the diaphragm
|What allows the lungs and thorax to act together as a unit?||
pleural linkage. The two layers stick together so the surface of the lungs sticks to the inside of the thoracic cage.
|What two systems can we divide the respiratory system into?||
the pulmonary system and the chest wall system
|What aerodynamic event needs to occur for inspiration?||
need to make the pressure gradient in favor of air flowing inward.
|If we removed the lungs from the thorax what would happen?||
they would be in a more collapsed state
|What do we do when we whisper with regard to how breathing is different than normal?||
we use less air/have less lung volume. Tend to talk below REL. Fewer syllables per breath. Lower subglottal pressure.
|What is the difference between a VC measure and a forced VC measure?||
For a VC measure you breathe out as completely as possible, for a forced VC you breathe out as completely AND quickly as possible.
|What is larger the right or left lung? How many lobes does the right lung have relative to the left?||
the right lung. THe right lung have three lobes, the left has two.